The city of Satu Mare, Romania is founded.
Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess.
Battle of Cedynia: Polish duke Mieszko I defeats the Germans.
Boleslaus II the Pious succeeds Boleslav I in Bohemia.
The monastery at the site of Peterborough Cathedral is rebuilt.
Emperor John Tzimisces makes eastern Bulgaria a Byzantine dependency.
A battle between Estonian and Icelandic Vikings in Saaremaa is described in Njl's saga.
Yaropolk of Kiev succeeds Sviatoslav I in Kiev.
The Khazar Khaganate extends from the Dnieper to the Caspian Sea, and establishes the city, Itil, as its capital on the shore of the Caspian. Northward it extends to the headwaters of the Volga. Their rulers accept the Jewish religion, apparently to assert their independence from both Muslims and Christians (approximate date).
A Rashidun army under Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah is annihilated by the Khazars, near the city of Balanjar (Northern Caucasus). During the battle, both sides use catapults against the other (approximate date).
January 31 Hemma of Altdorf, Frankish queen
August 28 Louis the German, king of the East Frankish Kingdom
Bagrat I, prince of Iberia (Georgia)
Bodo, Frankish deacon
Conrad I, Frankish nobleman
Conrad II, Frankish nobleman
Domagoj, duke (knyaz) of Croatia
Donatus of Fiesole, Irish bishop
Gurvand, duke ('king') of Brittany
Heiric of Auxerre, Frankish theologian and writer (b. 841)
Hessel Hermana, Frisian governor (approximate date)
Pascweten, duke ('king') of Brittany
Pyinbya, king of Burma (b. 817)
Raganar, Frankish nobleman
Wulfad, Frankish archbishop
Sparta is located in the region of Laconia, in the south-eastern Peloponnese. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the main river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water. The valley of the Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. Taygetus (2407 m) and to the east by Mt. Parnon (1935 m). To the north, Laconia is separated from Arcadia by hilly uplands reaching 1000 m in altitude. These natural defenses worked to Sparta's advantage and contributed to Sparta never having been sacked. Though landlocked, Sparta had a harbor, Gytheio, on the Laconian Gulf.
Others in the state were the perioikoi, who were free inhabitants of Spartan territory but were non-citizens, and the helots, the state-owned serfs. Descendants of non-Spartan citizens were not able to follow the agoge.