An extract on #volgolombardia
In their original 1955 canon of film noir, Raymond Borde and Etienne Chaumeton identified twenty-two Hollywood films released between 1941 and 1952 as core examples; they listed another fifty-nine American films from the period as significantly related to the field of noir. A half-century later, film historians and critics had come to agree on a canon of approximately three hundred films from 194058. There remain, however, many differences of opinion over whether other films of the era, among them a number of well-known ones, qualify as film noirs or not. For instance, The Night of the Hunter (1955), starring Robert Mitchum in an acclaimed performance, is treated as a film noir by some critics, but not by others. Some critics include Suspicion (1941), directed by Alfred Hitchcock, in their catalogues of noir; others ignore it. Concerning films made either before or after the classic period, or outside of the United States at any time, consensus is even rarer.
To support their categorization of certain films as noirs and their rejection of others, many critics refer to a set of elements they see as marking examples of the mode. The question of what constitutes the set of noir's identifying characteristics is a fundamental source of controversy. For instance, critics tend to define the model film noir as having a tragic or bleak conclusion, but many acknowledged classics of the genre have clearly happy endings (e.g., Stranger on the Third Floor, The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, and The Dark Corner), while the tone of many other noir denouements is ambivalent. Some critics perceive classic noir's hallmark as a distinctive visual style. Others, observing that there is actually considerable stylistic variety among noirs, instead emphasize plot and character type. Still others focus on mood and attitude. No survey of classic noir's identifying characteristics can therefore be considered definitive. In the 1990s and 2000s, critics have increasingly turned their attention to that diverse field of films called neo-noir; once again, there is even less consensus about the defining attributes of such films made outside the classic period.
The genre was recognized as a subgenre of hip-hop in the mid-1980s. It was dominated by "hard" electro beats of the type used primarily at the time in hip-hop music. Freestyle was more appreciated in larger cities.
The origin of the name "freestyle" is disputed. One theory is that the term refers to the mixing techniques of DJs who spun this form of music in its pre-house incarnations. Freestyle's syncopated beat structures required that DJs incorporate aspects of both electronic and hip-hop techniques, as they had to mix, or had more freedom to mix, more quickly and responsively to the individual songs. Another belief is that it refers to melodic pop vocals sung over beats of a type that previously were used only with rap and semi-chanted electro-funk. This combination of vocal styles was a form of freestyling akin to the use of the term in reference to competitive freestyle rap. A third explanation is that the music allows for a greater degree of freedom of dance expression than other music of the time, and each dancer is free to create his or her own style. Yet another story holds that the freestyle name evolved in Miami over confusion between two tracks produced by Tony "Pretty Boy" Butler: "Freestyle Express" by Freestyle and Debbie Deb's "When I Hear Music." The sound became synonymous with Butler's production, and the name of the group he was in, Freestyle, became the genre's name. The group was named for the members' love for BMX Freestyle Bike racing.