Barcelona is located on the northeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula, facing the Mediterranean Sea, on a plain approximately 5 km (3 mi) wide limited by the mountain range of Collserola, the Llobregat river to the southwest and the Bess river to the north. This plain covers an area of 170 km2 (66 sq mi), of which 101 km2 (39.0 sq mi) are occupied by the city itself. It is 120 kilometres (75 miles) south of the Pyrenees and the Catalan border with France.
Tibidabo, 512 m (1,680 ft) high, offers striking views over the city and is topped by the 288.4 m (946.2 ft) Torre de Collserola, a telecommunications tower that is visible from most of the city. Barcelona is peppered with small hills, most of them urbanised, that gave their name to the neighbourhoods built upon them, such as Carmel (267 metres or 876 feet), Putget (181 metres or 594 feet) and Rovira (261 metres or 856 feet). The escarpment of Montjuc (173 metres or 568 feet), situated to the southeast, overlooks the harbour and is topped by Montjuc castle, a fortress built in the 1718th centuries to control the city as a replacement for the Ciutadella. Today, the fortress is a museum and Montjuc is home to several sporting and cultural venues, as well as Barcelona's biggest park and gardens.
The city borders on the municipalities of Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adri de Bess to the north; the Mediterranean Sea to the east; El Prat de Llobregat and L'Hospitalet de Llobregat to the south; and Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Sant Just Desvern, Esplugues de Llobregat, Sant Cugat del Valls, and Montcada i Reixac to the west. The municipality includes two small sparsely-inhabited exclaves to the north-west.
Industry generates 21% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of the region, with the energy, chemical and metallurgy industries accounting for 47% of industrial production. The Barcelona metropolitan area had 67% of the total number of industrial establishments in Catalonia as of 1997.
Barcelona has long been an important European automobile manufacturing centre. Formerly there were automobile factories of AFA, Abadal, Actividades Industriales, Alvarez, America, Arts de Arcos, Balandrs, Baradat-Esteve, Biscter, J. Castro, Cla, David, Delfn, Daz y Grill, Ebro trucks, Edis, Elizalde, Automviles Espaa, Eucort, Fenix, Fbrica Hispano, Auto Academia Garriga, Fbrica Espaola de Automviles Hebe, Hispano-Suiza, Huracn Motors, Talleres Hereter, Junior SL, Kapi, La Cuadra, M.A., Automviles Matas, Motores y Motos, Nacional Custals, National Pescara, Nacional RG, Nacional Rubi, Nacional Sitjes, Automviles Nike, Orix, Otro Ford, Partia, Pegaso, PTV, Ricart, Ricart-Espaa, Industrias Salvador, Siata Espaola, Stevenson, Romagosa y Compaa, Garaje Storm, Talleres Hereter, Trimak, Automviles Victoria, Manufacturas Mecnicas Aleu.
Today, the headquarters and a large factory of SEAT (the largest Spanish automobile manufacturer) are in one of its suburbs. There is also a Nissan factory in the logistics and industrial area of the city. The factory of Derbi, a large manufacturer of motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, also lies near the city.
As in other modern cities, the manufacturing sector has long since been overtaken by the services sector, though it remains very important. The region's leading industries are textiles, chemical, pharmaceutical, motor, electronic, printing, logistics, publishing, telecommunications and information technology services.