An extract on #travelshots
The opposite of instrumental music, that is, music for voices alone, without any accompaniment instruments, is a cappella, an Italian phrase that means "in the chapel". In early music, instruments such as trumpet and drums were considered outdoor instruments, and music for inside a chapel typically used quieter instruments, voices, or just voices alone. A capella music exists in both Classical music choir pieces (for choir without any accompanist piano or pipe organ) and in popular music styles such as doo wop groups and Barbershop quartets. For genres in which a non-vocal song or interlude is conceived using computers and software, rather than with acoustic musical instruments or electronic musical instruments, the term instrumental is still used for it.
There are two governmental entities in the area: the Town of Ithaca and the City of Ithaca. The Town of Ithaca is one of the nine towns comprising Tompkins County. The City of Ithaca is surrounded by, but legally independent of, the Town.
The City of Ithaca has a mayor-council government. The charter of the City of Ithaca provides for a full-time mayor and city judge, each independent and elected at-large. Since 1995, the mayor has been elected to a four-year term, and since 1989, the city judge has been elected to a six-year term.
Since 1983, the city has been divided into five wards. Each elects two representatives to the city council, known as the Common Council, for staggered four-year terms. In March 2015, the Common Council unanimously adopted a resolution recognizing freedom from domestic violence as a fundamental human right.
Since students won the right to vote where they attend colleges, some have become more active in local politics. In 2004, Gayraud Townsend, a 20-year-old senior in Cornell's School of Industrial and Labor Relations, was sworn in as alderman of the city council, representing the 4th Ward. He is the first black male to be elected to the council and was then the youngest African American to be elected to office in the United States. He served his full term and has mentored other young student politicians. In 2011 Cornell undergraduate Svante Myrick was elected as the youngest mayor of the city of Ithaca.
In December 2005, the City and Town governments began discussing opportunities for increased government consolidation, including the possibility of joining the two into a single entity. This topic had been previously discussed in 1963 and 1969. Cayuga Heights, a village adjacent to the city on its northeast, voted against annexation into the city of Ithaca in 1954.