An extract on #sustainablefashion
Perhaps the most recognizable feature of Canadian English is "Canadian raising," which is found most prominently throughout central and west-central Canada, as well as in parts of the Atlantic Provinces. For the beginning points of the diphthongs (gliding vowels) /a/ (as in the words height and mice) and /a/ (as in shout and house), the tongue is often more "raised" in the mouth when these diphthongs come before voiceless consonants, namely /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, // and /f/, in comparison with other varieties of English.
Before voiceless consonants, /a/ becomes [~~]. One of the few phonetic variables that divides Canadians regionally is the articulation of the raised allophone of this as well as of /a/; in Ontario, it tends to have a mid-central or even mid-front articulation, sometimes approaching , while in the West and Maritimes a more retracted sound is heard, closer to . Among some speakers in the Prairies and in Nova Scotia, the retraction is strong enough to cause some tokens of raised /a/ to merge with /o/, so that couch merges with coach, meaning the two sound the same, and about sounds like a boat; this is often inaccurately represented as sounding like "a boot" for comic effect in American popular culture.
In General American, out is typically [t], but, with slight Canadian raising, it may sound more like [t], or, with the strong Canadian raising of the Prairies and Nova Scotia, more like IPA: [t]. Due to Canadian raising, words like height and hide have two different vowel qualities; also, for example, house as a noun (I saw a house) and house as a verb (Where will you house them tonight?) have two different vowel qualities: potentially, [hs] versus [haz].
Especially in parts of the Atlantic provinces, some Canadians do not possess the phenomenon of Canadian raising. On the other hand, certain non-Canadian accents demonstrate Canadian raising. In the U.S., this feature can be found in areas near the border and thus in the Upper Midwest, Pacific Northwest, and northeastern New England (e.g. Boston) dialects, though it is much less common than in Canada. The raising of /a/ alone, is actually increasing throughout the U.S., and unlike raising of /a/, and is generally not perceived as unusual by people who do not have the raising.
Because of Canadian raising, many speakers are able to distinguish between words such as writer and rider which can otherwise be impossible, since North American dialects typically turn both intervocalic /t/ and /d/ into an alveolar flap. Thus writer and rider are distinguished solely by their vowel characteristics as determined by Canadian raising: thus, a split between rider as  and writer possibly as  ( listen).
When not in a raised position (before voiceless consonants), /a/ is fronted to [a~] before nasals, and low-central  elsewhere.