Database technology has been an active research topic since the 1960s, both in academia and in the research and development groups of companies (for example IBM Research). Research activity includes theory and development of prototypes. Notable research topics have included models, the atomic transaction concept, and related concurrency control techniques, query languages and query optimization methods, RAID, and more.
The database research area has several dedicated academic journals (for example, ACM Transactions on Database Systems-TODS, Data and Knowledge Engineering-DKE) and annual conferences (e.g., ACM SIGMOD, ACM PODS, VLDB, IEEE ICDE).
Occasionally a database employs storage redundancy by database objects replication (with one or more copies) to increase data availability (both to improve performance of simultaneous multiple end-user accesses to a same database object, and to provide resiliency in a case of partial failure of a distributed database). Updates of a replicated object need to be synchronized across the object copies. In many cases, the entire database is replicated.
Aerodynamics, the study of gases in motion
Analytical dynamics, the motion of bodies as induced by external forces
Anomalous dynamics (Random walk#Anomalous diffusion), the stochastic motion of objects with mean squared displacement (MSD) that deviates from the relation for normal dynamics, MSD~t, where t is the time the process is seen; anomalous dynamics are either faster than normal dynamics (MSD>t) or slower (MSD<t)
Astrodynamics, also known as Orbital mechanics for both near earth and planetary motion (also called Celestial mechanics when used in that sense).
Brownian dynamics, the occurrence of Langevin dynamics in the motion of particles in solution (e.g. a grain in water, as was first seen by Brown); its famous property is: MSD~t, where MSD is the mean squared displacement, and t is the time the process is seen
File dynamics, stochastic motion of particles in a channel
Flight dynamics, the science of aircraft and spacecraft design
Fluid dynamics or hydrodynamics, the study of fluid flow
Computational fluid dynamics, a way of studying fluid dynamics using numerical methods
Fractional dynamics, studies the dynamics with integrations and differentiations of fractional orders (in physics, economics, and related fields)
Molecular dynamics, the study of motion on the molecular level
Normal dynamics, is a stochastic motion having a Gaussian probability density function in position with variance MSD that follows, MSD~t, where MSD is the mean squared displacement of the process, and t is the time the process is seen (normal dynamics and Brownian dynamics are very similar; the term used depends on the field)
Langevin dynamics, a mathematical model for stochastic dynamics; used in modeling molecules, stock market, neuronal membrane potentials and other systems
Orbital dynamics. the study of motion of natural or man-made objects, especially rockets and satellites and similar structures like the International Space Station or Mir, the Apollo missions, and the Space Shuttles or Soyuz capsules, in orbit, docked or free, around a body in the universe
Quantum chromodynamics, a theory of the strong interaction (color force)
Quantum electrodynamics, a description of how matter and light interact
Relativistic dynamics, a combination of relativistic and quantum concepts
Single file dynamics (also termed file dynamics), the diffusion of particles in a channel
Stellar dynamics, a description of the collective motion of stars
System dynamics, the study of the behavior of complex systems
Thermodynamics, the study of the relationships between heat and mechanical energy