An extract on #redwolfairsoft
Arabian tradition since the caliphate in several monarchies it remains customary to use the title Sheikh (in itself below princely rank) for all members of the royal family. In families (often reigning dynasties) which claim descent from Muhammad, this is expressed in either of a number of titles (supposing different exact relations): sayid, sharif; these are retained even when too remote from any line of succession to be a member of any dynasty.
In the Ottoman Empire, the sovereign of imperial rank (incorrectly known in the west as (Great) sultan) was styled padishah with a host of additional titles, reflecting his claim as political successor to the various conquered states. Princes of the blood, male, were given the style ehzade.
Persia (Iran) Princes as members of a royal family, are referred to by the title Shahzadeh, meaning "descendant of the king". Since the word zadeh could refer to either a male or female descendant, Shahzadeh had the parallel meaning of "princess" as well. Princes can also be sons of provincial kings (Khan) and the title referring to them would be the title of Khanzadeh. Princes as people who got a title from the King are called "Mirza", diminutive of "Amir Zadeh" (King's Son).
In Indian Muslim dynasties, the most common titles were Mirza (from Amirzada) and Shahzada; while Nawabzada and Sahibzada were also given to younger blood princes.
In Kazakh Khanate the title Sultan was used for lords from a ruling dynasty (direct descendants of Genghis Khan), that gives them a right to be elected as khan, as an experienced ruler; and an honorific tore (ru: ()) for ordinary members of a ruling dynasty.
A Western model was sometimes copied by emancipated colonial regimes (e.g. Bokassa I's short-lived Central-African Empire in Napoleonic fashion). Otherwise, most of the styles for members of ruling families do not lend themselves well to English translation. Nonetheless, in general the princely style has gradually replaced the colonialist title of "chief", which does not particularly connote dynastic rank to Westerners, e.g. Swazi Royal Family and Zulu Royal Family. Nominally ministerial chiefly titles, such as the Yoruba Oloye, still exist as distinct titles in kingdoms all over Africa.
In his book The Civilizing Process, Norbert Elias argued that manners arose as a product of group living and persist as a way of maintaining social order. He theorized that manners proliferated during the Renaissance in response to the development of the absolute state the progression from small group living to the centralization of power by the state. Elias believed that the rituals associated with manners in the Court Society of England during this period were closely bound with social status. To him, manners demonstrate an individuals position within a social network and act as a means by which the individual can negotiate that position.
Petersen and Lupton argue that manners helped reduce the boundaries between the public sphere and the private sphere and gave rise to a highly reflective self, a self who monitors his or her behavior with due regard for others with whom he or she interacts socially. They explain that; The public behavior of individuals came to signify their social standing, a means of presenting the self and of evaluating others and thus the control of the outward self was vital. From this perspective, manners are seen not just as a means of displaying ones social status, but also as a means of maintaining social boundaries relative to class and identity.
Pierre Bourdieus notion of habitus can also contribute to the understanding of manners. The habitus, he explains, is a set of dispositions that are neither self-determined, nor pre-determined, by external environmental factors. They tend to operate at a subconscious level and are inculcated through experience and explicit teaching and produced and reproduced by social interactions. Manners, in this view, are likely to be a central part of the dispositions which guide an individuals ability to make socially compliant behavioral decisions.