Potheads are used where higher voltage power lines go underground, generally voltages of 600 volts or greater. They are used mostly for service drops for commercial and industrial buildings. For lower voltages such as those used for residential service drops, another weather seal called a weatherhead is used.
The device consists of a molded plastic housing that attaches to the end of an electrical conduit that carries the underground cables up the utility pole to the crossarm. Multiple bushing insulators project from the plastic body, each ending at an electrical terminal. Each overhead wire is connected to a bushing terminal from which the current passes through a rod down the center of the bushing to the interior of the housing, where it is connected to a wire from the conduit. Thus the device allows the overhead conductors to pass into the conduit while serving as a seal to keep out water. The purpose of the bushings, which have corrugations moulded into their surfaces, is to provide enough creepage distance along their surface to prevent leakage current from the high voltage terminal from flowing to the grounded metal conduit.
Pothead was once defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Std 48-1962 "Standards for Potheads." This standard was superseded by IEEE Std 48-1975 "IEEE Standard Test Procedures and Requirements for High-Voltage Alternating-Current Cable Terminations," and "pothead" was dropped from usage. The current standard is IEEE Std 48-2009.
What was once called a pothead is now called a "Class I High-Voltage Cable Termination," which must meet these requirements:
Electrical stress control
Insulation between the conductors and ground
An environmental seal
Barbara. Ferry Press (London, 1966), 1st Edition. 32 pp. Poems, limited edition of 350 copies.
The Neglected Walt Whitman. Sam Abrams, Editor. Sixty-five poems, fragments, and three prose pieces by Whitman.
The Old Pothead Poems.
The Post-American Cultural Congress.
Book of Days, with Paul Blackburn.
Pazienza was born in San Benedetto del Tronto, province of Ascoli Piceno (Marche), in 1956.
Growing up in his father's town of San Severo, in Apulia, he enrolled in 1973 at the DAMS (Dipartimento di Arte, Musica e Spettacolo; Department of Arts, Music and Entertainment) of the University in Bologna.
He made his debut in the spring of 1977 in the magazine Alteralter with his first comic story, "Le straordinarie avventure di Pentothal" (Pentothal's extraordinary adventures), the surrealistic and psychedelic story of an alter ego named from a sedative (Penthothal). He later participated to such editorial experiences as Cannibale, Il Male and Frigidaire, where he created hundreds of comics with his unique and unmatched style, grown out of American underground comics (as represented by visionaries like Rick Griffin and Victor Moscoso), Italian Renaissance art and Walt Disney comics. He was especially fond of the character of Goofy, which he appropriated for a humorous spoof on Italian hippiedom of the 1970s entitled Perch Pippo sembra uno sballato ("Why Goofy Looks Like a Pothead"), and a later, unfinished story entitled La leggenda di Italianino Liberatore ("The Legend of Italianino Liberatore", referring to his old friend Tanino Liberatore); he also said in an interview that Carl Barks, the creator of Uncle Scrooge, Magica De Spell and other characters of the Duck family, was a model for his art.
Pazienza quickly developed an extremely personal body of work, alternating between playful comic cartooning at times politically charged, at times simply nonsensical and much more elaborate, dark, disturbing graphic novels, often dealing with drugs and wanton violence, with a liberal scattering of black humor throughout.
In 1980 he created the character Zanardi and collaborated with the magazines Corto Maltese and Comic Art while also producing movie and theater posters, scene designs, record covers and advertising. He was extremely prolific through the 80s, penning hundreds of single-panel cartoons as well as longer, intricate stories usually centered on Zanardi. If Pentothal was emblematic of the Bologna of 1977 (with the political activism and the trend of psychedelic drugs), Zanardi is a creature of the cynical and non-committed 1980s. Pompeo, his last graphic novel depicting the gradual downfall of a heroin addict (a largely autobiographical character) up to his eventual suicide, is generally considered his masterwork; the post-face to this work testifies that Pazienza tried to start a new life and, for a while, quit drugs.