Jurisdictional areas for District Attorneys are created by state law and while some follow traditional county boundaries, names and geographic areas covered are often different.
Criminal matters in Essex County are handled by the District Attorney for the Eastern District; in Middlesex County by the District Attorney for the Northern District; in Worcester County by the District Attorney for the Middle District; in Dukes, Barnstable and Nantucket counties by the District Attorney for the Cape and Islands District and in Franklin and Hampshire counties by the District Attorney for the Northwestern District. The districts for the counties of Berkshire, Bristol, Hampden, Norfolk, Plymouth and Suffolk are the same in geography and nomenclature as the respective counties, and the District Attorneys for the Eastern, Middle, and Northern Districts are commonly known as the Essex County, Worcester County, and Middlesex County District Attorneys, respectively.
Eleven other historical counties have existed in Massachusetts, most becoming defunct when their lands were absorbed into the colony of New Hampshire or the state of Maine, both of which were created out of territory originally claimed by Massachusetts colonists. The oldest counties still in Massachusetts are Essex County, Middlesex County, and Suffolk County, created in 1643 with the original Norfolk County which was absorbed by New Hampshire and bears no relation to the modern Norfolk County. When these counties were created, they were a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which would remain separate from the Plymouth Colony and that colony's counties until 1691. Hampden County, created in 1812, is the most recently created county still in Massachusetts, although Penobscot County, Maine bore that distinction until Maine broke off from Massachusetts in 1820. The majority of Massachusetts counties are named in honor of English place names, reflecting Massachusetts' colonial heritage.
The term shire town is the statutory term for the Massachusetts town having a county court and administration offices; a county can have multiple shire towns. County seat is the standard term used in general communications by the Massachusetts government.
Randy Glover was living in Foster City and had been experimenting with electronics when he saw his first computer in 1977 when he played Star Trek at a Berkeley University open house. This prompted him to purchase a Commodore PET in 1978, and then upgraded to a TRS-80 due to its support of a hard drive.
Jumpman came about after Glover saw Donkey Kong in a local Pizza Hut (having replaced Pac Man). This led him to become interested in making a version for home computers. He visited a local computer store who had the TI-99/4A and Atari 400. He initially purchased the TI-99 due to its better keyboard, but when he learned the graphics were based on character set manipulation, he returned it the next day and purchased the Atari.
The initial version was written using a compiler on the Apple II, moving the software to the Atari. A prototype with 13 levels took four or five months to complete. After looking in the back of a computer magazine for publisher, in early 1983 he approached Broderbund. They were interested but demanded that their programmers be allowed to work on it. The next day he met with Automated Simulations, who were much more excited by the game and agreed to allow Glover to complete it himself.
At the time, the company was in the process of moving from the strategy game market to action titles, which they released under their Epyx brand. Jumpman was the perfect title for the brand, and the company hired him. Aiming the game at the newly enlarged RAM available on the Atari 800 led to the 32 levels of the final design. The Atari release was a huge hit, and the company soon abandoned their strategic games and renamed as Epyx. Glover then moved on to a C64 port, which was not trivial due to a particular feature of the Atari hardware Glover used to ease development.
Jumpman became a best-seller for Epyx, selling about 40,000 copies on the Atari and C64 until 1987, reaching somewhere between #3 and #6 on the then-current Billboard top 100 games chart. Sales were hindered by the release of Miner 2049er only a few months earlier, which held the #1 spot at that time. Other programmers at Epyx ported it to the Apple II, with poor results, and a year later, contracted Mirror Images Software for an IBM PC/PCjr port. The Atari and Commodore versions were released on disk and cassette tape, the Apple and IBM versions only on disk. The Atari version used a classic bad-sector method of preventing copying, but this had little effect on piracy.
After developing the original versions, Glover moved on to Jumpman Jr, a cartridge title with only 12 levels. He stated that it wasn't really a sequel to Jumpman, but more of a "lite" version for Atari and Commodore users who didn't have disk drives. These versions used the same game engine as the original, but removed the more complex levels and any code needed to run them. Two of its levels (Dumbwaiter and Electroshock Traps) were turned into Sreddal ("Ladders" backwards) and Fire! Fire! on the latter. The C64 version was later ported to the ColecoVision, which used the C64 levels, but it is not clear this was released.
Glover continued working at Epyx on a number of other projects, a little-known program known as Lunar Outpost, and the swimming section of Summer Games. He remained at the company for about two years before returning to the cash register business.