1953 - ifte Kavrulmu
1961 - Tenten ve Altn Post
1962 - Ksmetin En Gzeli
1962 - Erkeklik ld m Atf Bey
1963 - ntikam Hrs
1963 - alnan Ak
1964 - Tophaneli Osman (Avukat)
1964 - T Gibi Delikanl
1964 - Sokaklarn Kanunu (Hasan)
1965 - Serseri Ak
1965 - Pantolon Bankas
1970 - Red Kit
1974 - Atn Seven Kovboy (Bankac)
1977 - Sakar akir (Sabri Amca)
1979 - Korkusuz Korkak (Mlayim Ters)
A loanword is distinguished from a calque (loan translation), which is a word or phrase whose meaning or idiom is adopted from another language by translation into existing words or word-forming roots of the recipient language.
Examples of loanwords in the English language include caf (from French caf, which literally means "coffee"), bazaar (from Persian bzr, which means "market"), and kindergarten (from German Kindergarten, which literally means "children's garden").
In a bit of heterological irony, the word calque is a loanword from the French noun, derived from the verb calquer (to trace, to copy); the word loanword is a calque of the German word Lehnwort; and the phrase "loan translation" is a calque of the German Lehnbersetzung.
Loans of multi-word phrases, such as the English use of the French term dj vu, are known as adoptions, adaptations, or lexical borrowings.
Strictly speaking, the term loanword conflicts with the ordinary meaning of loan in that something is taken from the donor language without it being something that is possible to return.
The studies by Werner Betz (1949, 1939), Einar Haugen (1950, also 1956), and Uriel Weinreich (1953) are regarded as the classical theoretical works on loan influence. The basic theoretical statements all take Betzs nomenclature as their starting point. Duckworth (1977) enlarges Betzs scheme by the type partial substitution and supplements the system with English terms. A schematic illustration of these classifications is given below.
The expression "foreign word" used in the illustration below is, however, an incorrect translation of the German term Fremdwort, which refers to loanwords whose pronunciation, spelling, and possible inflection or gender have not yet been so much adapted to the new language that they cease to feel foreign. Such a separation of loanwords into two distinct categories is not used by linguists in English in talking about any language. In addition, basing such a separation mainly on spelling as described in the illustration is (or, in fact, was) not usually done except by German linguists and only when talking about German and sometimes other languages that tend to adapt foreign spellings, which is rare in English unless the word has been in wide use for a very long time.
According to the linguist Suzanne Kemmer, the expression "foreign word" can be defined as follows in English: "[W]hen most speakers do not know the word and if they hear it think it is from another language, the word can be called a foreign word. There are many foreign words and phrases used in English such as bon vivant (French), mutatis mutandis (Latin), and Schadenfreude (German)." This is however not how the term is (incorrectly) used in this illustration:
On the basis of an importation-substitution distinction, Haugen (1950: 214f.) distinguishes three basic groups of borrowings: (1) Loanwords show morphemic importation without substitution.... (2) Loanblends show morphemic substitution as well as importation.... (3) Loanshifts show morphemic substitution without importation. Haugen later refined (1956) his model in a review of Gneusss (1955) book on Old English loan coinages, whose classification, in turn, is the one by Betz (1949) again.
Weinreich (1953: 47ff.) differentiates between two mechanisms of lexical interference, namely those initiated by simple words and those initiated by compound words and phrases. Weinreich (1953: 47) defines simple words from the point of view of the bilinguals who perform the transfer, rather than that of the descriptive linguist. Accordingly, the category simple words also includes compounds that are transferred in unanalysed form. After this general classification, Weinreich then resorts to Betzs (1949) terminology.