An extract on #onthetable
48 BC Caesar's Civil War: Battle of Pharsalus: Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.
378 Gothic War: Battle of Adrianople: A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens is defeated by the Visigoths. Valens is killed along with over half of his army.
1173 Construction of the campanile of the Cathedral of Pisa (now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa) begins; it will take two centuries to complete.
1329 Quilon, the first Indian Christian Diocese, is erected by Pope John XXII; the French-born Jordanus is appointed the first Bishop.
1500 OttomanVenetian War (14991503): The Ottomans capture Methoni, Messenia.
1610 The First Anglo-Powhatan War begins in colonial Virginia.
1810 Napoleon annexes Westphalia as part of the First French Empire.
1814 Indian Wars: The Creek sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving up huge parts of Alabama and Georgia.
1830 Louis Philippe becomes the king of the French following abdication of Charles X.
1842 The WebsterAshburton Treaty is signed, establishing the United StatesCanada border east of the Rocky Mountains.
1854 Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden.
1862 American Civil War: Battle of Cedar Mountain: At Cedar Mountain, Virginia, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson narrowly defeats Union forces under General John Pope.
1877 Indian Wars: Battle of the Big Hole: A small band of Nez Perc Indians clash with the United States Army
1892 Thomas Edison receives a patent for a two-way telegraph.
1896 Glider pioneer Otto Lilienthal dies in a fatal crash.
1902 Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1907 The first Boy Scout encampment concludes at Brownsea Island in southern England.
1914 Start of the Battle of Mulhouse, part of a French attempt to recover the province of Alsace and the first French offensive of World War I.
1925 A train robbery takes place in Kakori, near Lucknow, India
1930 Betty Boop makes her cartoon debut in Dizzy Dishes.
1936 Summer Olympic Games: Games of the XI Olympiad: Jesse Owens wins his fourth gold medal at the games.
1942 World War II: Battle of Savo Island: Allied naval forces protecting their amphibious forces during the initial stages of the Battle of Guadalcanal are surprised and defeated by an Imperial Japanese Navy cruiser force.
1944 The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time.
1944 Continuation War: The VyborgPetrozavodsk Offensive, the largest offensive launched by Soviet Union against Finland during the Second World War, ends to a strategic stalemate. Both Finnish and Soviet troops at the Finnish front dug to defensive positions, and the front remains stable until the end of the war.
1945 World War II: Nagasaki is devastated when an atomic bomb, Fat Man, is dropped by the United States B-29 Bockscar. Thirty-five thousand people are killed outright, including 23,200-28,200 Japanese war workers, 2,000 Korean forced workers, and 150 Japanese soldiers.
1945 The Red Army invades Japanese-occupied Manchuria.
1960 South Kasai secedes from the Congo.
1965 Singapore is expelled from Malaysia and becomes the only country to date to gain independence unwillingly.
1969 Followers of Charles Manson murder pregnant actress Sharon Tate (wife of Roman Polanski), coffee heiress Abigail Folger, Polish actor Wojciech Frykowski, men's hairstylist Jay Sebring and recent high-school graduate Steven Parent.
1971 The Troubles: The British Army in Northern Ireland launches Operation Demetrius. Hundreds of people are arrested and interned, thousands are displaced, and twenty are killed in the violence that followed.
1973 Mars 7 is launched from the USSR.
1974 As a direct result of the Watergate scandal, Richard Nixon becomes the first President of the United States to resign from office. His Vice President, Gerald Ford, becomes president.
1991 The Italian prosecuting magistrate Antonino Scopelliti is murdered by the 'Ndrangheta on behalf of the Sicilian Mafia while preparing the governments case in the final appeal of the Maxi Trial.
1993 The Liberal Democratic Party of Japan loses a 38-year hold on national leadership.
1999 Russian President Boris Yeltsin fires his Prime Minister, Sergei Stepashin, and for the fourth time fires his entire cabinet.
2006 At least 21 suspected terrorists were arrested in the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot that happened in the United Kingdom. The arrests were made in London, Birmingham, and High Wycombe in an overnight operation.
2013 Gunmen open fire at a Sunni mosque in the city of Quetta killing at least ten people and injuring 30.
2014 Michael Brown, an 18-year-old African American male in Ferguson, Missouri, was shot and killed by a Ferguson police officer after reportedly assaulting the officer and attempting to steal his weapon, sparking protests and unrest in the city.