South American transportation systems are still deficient, with low kilometric densities. The region has about 1,700,000 km of highways and 100,000 km of railways, which are concentrated in the coastal strip, and the interior is still devoid of communication.
Only two railroads are continental: the Transandina, which connects Buenos Aires, in Argentina to Valparaso, in Chile, and the Brazil-Bolivia Railroad, which makes it the connection between the port of Santos in Brazil and the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in Bolivia. In addition, there is the Pan-American Highway, which crosses the Andean countries from north to south, although some stretches are unfinished.
Two areas of greater density occur in the railway sector: the platinum network, which develops around the Platine region, largely belonging to Argentina, with more than 45,000 km in length; And the Southeast Brazil network, which mainly serves the state of So Paulo, state of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Brazil and Argentina also stand out in the road sector. In addition to the modern roads that extend through northern Argentina and south-east and south of Brazil, a vast road complex aims to link Brasilia, the federal capital, to the South, Southeast, Northeast and Northern regions of Brazil.
The Port of Callao is the main port of Peru. South America has one of the largest bays of navigable inland waterways in the world, represented mainly by the Amazon basin, the Platine basin, the So Francisco and the Orinoco basins, Brazil having about 54,000 km navigable, while Argentina has 6,500 km and Venezuela, 1,200 km.
The two main merchant fleets also belong to Brazil and Argentina. The following are those of Chile, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia. The largest ports in commercial movement are those of Buenos Aires, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Baha Blanca, Rosario, Valparaiso, Recife, Salvador, Montevideo, Paranagu, Rio Grande, Fortaleza, Belm and Maracaibo.
In South America, commercial aviation has a magnificent expansion field, which has one of the largest traffic density lines in the world, Rio de Janeiro-So Paulo, and large airports, such as Congonhas, So Paulo-Guarulhos International and Viracopos (So Paulo), Rio de Janeiro International and Santos Dumont (Rio de Janeiro), Ezeiza (Buenos Aires), Confins International Airport (Belo Horizonte), Curitiba International Airport (Curitiba), Brasilia, Caracas, Montevideo, Lima, Bogot, Recife, Salvador, Salgado Filho International Airport (Porto Alegre), Fortaleza, Manaus and Belm.
The main public transport in major cities is the bus. Many cities also have a diverse system of metro and subway trains. The Santiago subway is the largest network in South America, with 103 km, while the So Paulo subway is the largest in transportation, with more than 4.6 million passengers per day and was voted the best in the Americas. In Rio de Janeiro was installed the first railroad of the continent, in 1854. Today the city has a vast and diversified system of metropolitan trains, integrated with buses and subway. Recently it was also inaugurated in the city a Light Rail System called VLT, a small electrical trams at low speed, while So Paulo inaugurated its monorail, the first of South America. In Brazil, an express bus system called Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), which operates in several cities, has also been developed.