In this article and other discussions of the Axiom of Choice the following abbreviations are common:
AC the Axiom of Choice.
ZF ZermeloFraenkel set theory omitting the Axiom of Choice.
ZFC ZermeloFraenkel set theory, extended to include the Axiom of Choice.
The origin of the name "Attila" is unclear, and there is no consensus among scholars.:177
Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen considered an East Germanic origin; Attila is formed from Gothic or Gepidic noun atta, "father", by means of the diminutive suffix -ila,:386 meaning "little father". The Gothic etymology can be tracked up to Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were "not the true names of the Hun princes and lords. What we have are Hunnic names in Germanic dress, modified to fit the Gothic tongue, or popular Gothic etymologies, or both".:389 Peter Heather, who strongly considered Germanic etymology of the name Attila and some of noble Huns,:2930, 177 stated that the possibility Attila was of Germanic ancestry cannot be ruled out. The names of Attila's brother Bleda, and most powerful minister Onegesius, also have hypothetical Germanic etymology. Only credible Germanic etymology have Attila's blood relative Laudaricus,:388 and certain Hun-Goth Ragnaris.:383, 389
Hyun Jin Kim argued that the "Germanization of Hunnic names may have been a conscious policy among the Hunnic elite in the West in order to ease the transition to their rule of formerly independent German tribal unions".:93 In the Western part of Hunnic Empire, where mostly lived subjected Gothic tribes, Huns probably spoke both Hunnic and Gothic language, and as such bore Germanized or Germanic name, like Laudaricus.:30 Maenchen-Helfen also expressed concern over orthography of the writer, possible morphological change, that some names writers heard from the Goths, the tendency of Roman and Byzantine writers to alter foreign names, and manuscript corruption.:381382
However, Kim noted that those names considered by Heather to be Gothic, especially in this case of Attila and Bleda, have more natural and probable Turkic etymology.:30 Heather also ignored the fact that all Hunnic rulers before Attila, as well his father Mundzuk, paternal uncles Octar, Ruga and Oebarsius, wife Kreka, father-in-law Eskam, and sons Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak, have names of Turkic origin.:30
Omeljan Pritsak considered (Atilla) a composite title-name which derived from Turkic *es (great, old), and *t il (sea, ocean), and the suffix /a/.:444 The stressed back syllabic til assimilated the front member es, so it became *as.:444 It is a nominative, in form of attl- (< *etsl < *es tl) with the meaning "the oceanic, universal ruler".:444 Peter Golden, citing Pritsak, like Lszl Rsonyi connected Attila's name with Menander note in which used term Attilan as the name of the Volga River (Turkic Atil/Itil; "great river").:90 J.J. Mikkola connected it with Turkic t (name, fame). Gerd Althoff considered it was related to Turkish atli (horseman, cavalier), or Turkish at (horse) and dil (tongue).
Tom Shippey in his work Goths and Huns: The Rediscovery of Northern Cultures in the Nineteenth Century (1982), argued that the Gothic etymology is a product of 19th century Germanic romantic philological revisionism.:177
M. Sndal casts doubt on the Germanic origin of the name Attila in a recently published article. "The Gothic origin of the name Attila is questionable," Sndal writes. "It is at least as likely to be of Hunnic origin". The article points out that the word atta is a migratory term for "father/forefather" common in multiple languages, including many Turkic languages (see Ata). The article also indicates that Attila's name could have originated from Turkic-Mongolian at, adyy/agta (gelding, warhorse) and Turkish atli (horseman, cavalier), meaning "possessor of geldings, provider of warhorses", a suitable name for a warlord. He concludes:
Of course we do not know how the name sounded in the language of the Huns. Sometime, somewhere, somehow a proto-form like *agtala- changed to *attila. We cannot tell if the assimilation of "gt" to "tt", and/or if loss of a final consonant took place in Hunnic or if these changes were part of the adaptation process into Latin, Gothic and Greek... Truly, our knowledge of the Hunnic language is almost zero. One can only guess a solution to this riddle of Attila's name.
The name has many variants in several languages: Atli and Atle in Old Norse; Etzel in Middle High German (Nibelungenlied); tla in Old English; Attila, Atilla, and Etele in Hungarian (Attila is the most popular); Attila, Atilla, Atilay, or Atila in Turkish; and Adil and Edil in Kazakh or Adil ("same/similar") or Edil ("to use") in Mongolian.