An extract on #montenegro
In the 9th century, three Serbian principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia, the north. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljevi dynasty. After passing through the control of several regional powers and the Ottoman Empire in the ensuing centuries, it became a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1918, which was succeeded by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945.
After the Breakup of Yugoslavia in 1992, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, although its status as the legal successor to Yugoslavia was opposed by other former republics and denied by the United Nations; in 2003, it renamed itself Serbia and Montenegro. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.
The country's name in most Western European languages reflects an adaptation of the Venetian Montenegro (Latin mons "mountain" + niger "black"), roughly "Mount Black" or "black mountain". Many other languages, particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term "black mountain". Examples are the Albanian name for the country, Mali i Zi, the Greek name , the Chinese name "" (Hishn), and the Turkish name Karada, and the Arabic name (Aljabbal Alaswad) , all meaning "Black Mountain". All Slavic languages use slight variations on the Montenegrin name Crna Gora; examples include the Czech ern Hora and the Polish Czarnogra (from its literal form Czarna Gra). Chechen and Ingush people call the country (rjalamanch).
The name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century. Originally, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Patrovii, but the name eventually came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojevi noble family took power in Upper Zeta.
The aforementioned region became known as "Old Montenegro" (Stara Crna Gora) by the 19th century to distinguish it from the newly acquired territory of Brda ("the Highlands"). Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raka. Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor.
The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.