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Studies of AA's efficacy have produced inconsistent results. While some studies have suggested an association between AA attendance and increased abstinence or other positive outcomes, other studies have not. Even meta-analyses and literature reviews have resulted in widely divergent conclusions. The 2006 Cochrane Review of eight studies (the studies reviewed were done between 1967 and 2005) measuring the effectiveness of AA found no significant difference between the results of AA and twelve-step participation compared to other treatments, stating that "experimental studies have on the whole failed to demonstrate their effectiveness in reducing alcohol dependence or drinking problems when compared to other interventions." A 2014 study by Keith Humphreys, Janet Blodgett and Todd Wagner concluded that "increasing AA attendance leads to short and long term decreases in alcohol consumption that cannot be attributed to self-selection." Austin Frakt, writing for The New York Times, discusses how the study's methodology minimizes outside factors, such as how motivated the people who succeed at becoming abstinent are. A meta-analysis by Dr. Lee Ann Kaskutas in 2009 reported that while the evidence base for twelve step groups from experimental studies was weak, "other categories of evidence... are overwhelmingly convincing". Specifically, the correlation between exposure to AA and outcome, the dose-response relationship, and the consistency of the association were found to be very strong. In other words, the frequency by which individuals attend meetings appears to have a statistically significant correlation with maintaining abstinence. Kaskutas noted two studies which both found that 70% of those who attended twelve-step groups at least weekly were abstaining from alcohol consumption at follow ups two and sixteen years later. Those who attended less than once per week showed about the same success rate as those who didnt attend meetings. Kaskutas also found AA to function consistently with known behavioral change theories and substantial empirical support for specific mechanisms through which AA facilitates change. A preliminary study suggested that "AA prayers" help long-term AA members reduce cravings for alcohol. The study used a MRI machine to scan how subjects reacted to images of people drinking. The study randomly assigned the subjects, so that some subjects saw the images after saying prayers in the Big Book of Alcoholics Anonymous; others after reading newspaper articles. The people who had just seen the prayers reported feeling fewer cravings for alcohol; the MRI scans of their brains confirmed that there was a different reaction.