An extract on #instanature
United States Congress. "Abraham Lincoln (id: L000313)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Abraham Lincoln: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress
"Life Portrait of Abraham Lincoln", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, June 28, 1999
"Writings of Abraham Lincoln" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History
Abraham Lincoln: Original Letters and Manuscripts Shapell Manuscript Foundation
Lincoln/Net: Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project Northern Illinois University Libraries
Teaching Abraham Lincoln National Endowment for the Humanities
Works by or about Abraham Lincoln at Internet Archive
Works by Abraham Lincoln at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
In Popular Song:Our Noble Chief Has Passed Away by Cooper/Thomas
The origin of the name Oscar is disputed. One biography of Bette Davis, who was a president of the Academy, claims that she named the Oscar after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson. Another claimed origin is that the Academy's Executive Secretary, Margaret Herrick, first saw the award in 1931 and made reference to the statuette's reminding her of her "Uncle Oscar" (a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce). Columnist Sidney Skolsky was present during Herrick's naming and seized the name in his byline, "Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar'."
One of the earliest mentions of the term Oscar dates back to a Time magazine article about the 1934 6th Academy Awards. Walt Disney is also quoted as thanking the Academy for his Oscar as early as 1932. The trophy was officially dubbed the "Oscar" in 1939 by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of 5,783 as of 2012.
Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production. Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) for the past 83 annual awards ceremonies.
All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures.
New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.
In 2012, the results of a study conducted by the Los Angeles Times were published describing the demographic breakdown of approximately 88% of AMPAS' voting membership. Of the 5,100+ active voters confirmed, 94% were Caucasian, 77% were male, and 54% were found to be over the age of 60. 33% of voting members are former nominees (14%) and winners (19%).
In May 2011, the Academy sent a letter advising its 6,000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in 2013.