An extract on #indoclubbing
Piezoresistive Strain Gage
Uses the piezoresistive effect of bonded or formed strain gauges to detect strain due to applied pressure.
Uses a diaphragm and pressure cavity to create a variable capacitor to detect strain due to applied pressure.
Measures the displacement of a diaphragm by means of changes in inductance (reluctance), LVDT, Hall Effect, or by eddy current principle.
Uses the piezoelectric effect in certain materials such as quartz to measure the strain upon the sensing mechanism due to pressure.
Uses the physical change of an optical fiber to detect strain due to applied pressure.
Uses the motion of a wiper along a resistive mechanism to detect the strain caused by applied pressure.
Uses the changes in resonant frequency in a sensing mechanism to measure stress, or changes in gas density, caused by applied pressure.
EN 472 : Pressure gauge - Vocabulary.
EN 837-1 : Pressure gauges. Bourdon tube pressure gauges. Dimensions, metrology, requirements and testing.
EN 837-2 : Pressure gauges. Selection and installation recommendations for pressure gauges.
EN 837-3 : Pressure gauges. Diaphragm and capsule pressure gauges. Dimensions, metrology, requirements, and testing.
Chant (or plainsong) is a monophonic sacred (single, unaccompanied melody) form which represents the earliest known music of the Christian church. Chant developed separately in several European centres. Although the most important were Rome, Hispania, Gaul, Milan, and Ireland, there were others as well. These styles were all developed to support the regional liturgies used when celebrating the Mass there. Each area developed its own chant and rules for celebration. In Spain and Portugal, Mozarabic chant was used and shows the influence of North African music. The Mozarabic liturgy even survived through Muslim rule, though this was an isolated strand and this music was later suppressed in an attempt to enforce conformity on the entire liturgy. In Milan, Ambrosian chant, named after St. Ambrose, was the standard, while Beneventan chant developed around Benevento, another Italian liturgical center. Gallican chant was used in Gaul, and Celtic chant in Ireland and Great Britain.
Around AD 1011, the Roman Catholic Church wanted to standardize the Mass and chant across its empire. At this time, Rome was the religious centre of western Europe, and Paris was the political centre. The standardization effort consisted mainly of combining these two (Roman and Gallican) regional liturgies. Pope Gregory I and Charlemagne sent trained singers throughout the Holy Roman Empire to teach this new form of chant. This body of chant became known as Gregorian Chant, named after Pope Gregory I. By the 12th and 13th centuries, Gregorian chant had superseded all the other Western chant traditions, with the exception of the Ambrosian chant in Milan and the Mozarabic chant in a few specially designated Spanish chapels. Hildegard von Bingen (10981179) was the earliest known female composer. She wrote many monophonic works for the Catholic Church, almost all of them for female voices.