Posts filled under #ikizdere

An extract on #ikizdere

During the 19th and the 20th centuries in particular the Seine inspired many artists, including: A song 'La Seine' by Flavien Monod and Guy Lafarge was written in 1948. Josephine Baker recorded a song 'La Seine' A song 'La seine' by Vanessa Paradis feat. Matthieu Chedid was originally written as a soundtrack for the movie 'A Monster in Paris'

Until 1953, the State of Vietnam was nominally independent from Paris. Since dissatisfaction with France and Bo i rose among non-communist nationalists, and support from non-communist nationalists and Dim's allies for him increased for his "true independence" point of view from France, Dim sensed that it was time for him to come to power in Vietnam. In early 1954, Bo i offered Dim the Prime Minister position of the new government in Vietnam. In May 1954, the French surrendered at in Bin Ph and the Geneva Conference began in April 1954. On 16 June 1954, Dim met with Bo i in France and agreed to be the Prime Minister if Bo i would give him military and civilian control. On 25 June 1954, Dim returned from exile, arriving at Tn Sn Nht airport in Saigon. On 7 July 1954, Dim established his new government with a cabinet of 18 people. On 21 July 1954, the Geneva accords resulted in Vietnam being partitioned temporarily at the 17th parallel, pending elections in 1956 to reunify the country. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam controlled the north, while the French backed State of Vietnam controlled the south with Dim as the Prime Minister. Dim criticized the French for abandoning North Vietnam to the Communists at Geneva, claimed that the terms did not represent Vietnamese peoples will and refused French suggestion to include more pro-French officials in the government. In the first period of his premiership, Dim did not have much power in the government, lacked military and police forces and the civil system's key positions were still held by French officials. He could not also control the Bank of Indochina. Besides, Dim had to face with massive obstacles: the refugee issues, the French colonists wanted to remove Dim to protect France's interest in South Vietnam, general Nguyn Vn Hinh, a Francophile, the leader of National Army was ready to oust Dim, the leaders of Ha Ho and Cao i sect armies wanted positions in Dim's cabinet and complete administrative control over their large-following areas, and the major threat of Bnh Xuynan organized crime syndicate, controlled National Police led by L Vn Vin, whose power was focused in Saigon In summer 1954, the three organizations controlled approximately one-third of the territory and population in South Vietnam. In that situation, besides his own political skills, Dim had to trust in his relatives and the backing of his American supporters to overcome the obstacles and neutralize his opponents. The accords allowed for freedom of movement between the two zones until October 1954; this put a large strain on the south. Dim had only expected 10,000 refugees, but by August, there were over 200,000 waiting in Hanoi and Hi Phng to be evacuated; the migration helped to strengthen Dim's political base of support. To deal with the refugee matter, Diem's government arranged them to live into fertile and under-populated provinces in the western Mekong Delta. Dim regime also provided them with food and shelter, farm tools and housing material. The government also dug irrigation canals, built dikes and dredged swamp-lands to help stabilise their lives. In August 1954, Dim also had to face the "Hinh crisis" when Nguyn Vn Hinh launched a series of public attacks on Dim, proclaiming that South Vietnam needed a "strong and popular" leader. Hinh also bragged that he was preparing a coup. However, in the end of 1954, Dim successfully forced Hinh to resign from his post. Hinh had to flee to Paris and hand over his command of national army to general Nguyn Vn V. But then, the National Army officers came out in favour of Dim's leadership over General V, which forced him to flee to Paris. Despite its failure, the French continued to encourage Dim's enemies in an attempt to destabilize him. On 31 December 1954, Dim established the National Bank of Vietnam and replaced currently Indochinese banknote by new Vietnamese banknotes. In early 1955, although American advisors incited Dim to negotiate with the leaders of the political-religious forces who threatened to overthrow his position and to forge an anti-communist bloc, he was determined to attack his enemies to consolidate his power. In April 1955, Dim's army forces took most of Bnh Xuyn's posts in Saigon after a victory in the Battle of Saigon. Within a few months, Dim's troops wiped out the Bnh Xuyn's remnants, leaving only a few small bands, who then joined forces with the communists. The failure of Bnh Xuyn marked the end of French efforts to remove Dim. After the defeat of Bnh Xuyn, the authority and prestige of Dim's government increased. Most of Cao i leaders chose to rally to Dim's government. Dim then further dismantled the private armies of the Cao i and Ha Ho religious sects. By the end of 1955, Dim had almost taken control of South Vietnam, and his government was stronger than it had ever been before. In April 1956, along with the capture of Ba Ct, the leader of the last Ha Ho rebels, Dim almost subdued all of his non-communist enemies, and could focus on his Vietnamese communist opponents. According to Miller, Dim's capacity in subduing his enemies and consolidating his power strengthened the support to his government of the USwho had planned to withdraw its backing from Dim during his early difficult years of leadership.

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