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Clifton and Ashton are the two principal towns. The island is home to just under 3,000 residents. The official language is English, but French and German are spoken by some merchants in Clifton as well. The island has an international airport which has domestic flights to Saint Vincent and some of the Grenadines and international flights to Barbados, Carriacou, Grenada and Martinique.

Due to its volcanic silhouette, it is also called the Tahiti of the West Indies. The island is approximately three miles (4.8 kilometres) long and one mile (1.6 kilometres) wide. Surrounding islands are Tobago Cays, Mayreau, Palm Island, and Petit Saint Vincent. The highest peak is Mount Taboi - 999 feet (304 metres) above sea level. Union Island has a semi-arid climate its hills are not high enough to produce the rainfall that transforms Grenada's northern coastal areas into rainforest. During the dry season, December/January through June, the only source of water on the island is the water stored during the rainy season (JuneDecember).

After the original settlers, Arawak and Caribs, the island has been in the possession of French and English slave traders and plantation owners. They brought hundreds of Africans to the island, mostly from regions of Africa that are now Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola, and Ghana. Sea Island Cotton was an important export crop Sea Island cotton trees may still be found on the island a good example can be found in the Bougainvillia complex beside the Anchorage Yacht Club in Clifton Harbour. When slavery was abolished, people still relied on farming and fishing. As a result, a lot of men went to sea to work on freighters to support their families. Union Island was the centre of some political unrest in the late 1970s when a group of residents were in favour of secession from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and merger with southern neighbour Grenada. The insurrection was put down by forces of the Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Government. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers spent much of a year working on Union Island and completed a new Coast Guard Jetty and shore office at the mouth of Clifton Harbour.

Today the yacht services business and tourist day-chartering business provides a lot of jobs, there are numerous boutiques and supermarkets, bars and restaurants, internet cafes and a dive operator. There are several hotels and guest houses on Union Island, as well as schools, churches and a small health clinic. The official currency is the Eastern Caribbean Dollar (EC), though U.S. dollars and Euros are widely accepted. Telecommunications services are provided by Cable & Wireless which offers landline and wireless services (GSM). Digicel offers competing wireless services, including the network formerly operated by AT&T Wireless/Cingular. High Speed Internet services are provided by Cable and Wireless (512 kbit/s down, 128 kbit/s up). The island is connected to the Saint Vincent mainland by a series of digital microwave towers (through connections to neighbouring islands of Canouan and Bequia). WiFi service in the harbour is offered through Internet Cafe-Clifton. Also through HotHotHot Spot, a service offered in Union through Erika's Marine Services, is also offered in Bequia in the Grenadines, as well as Dominica and Antigua (both Falmouth and English Harbours and Jolly Harbour). Other computer and electronic support is also offered by The Internet Cafe Clifton. Local piers and docks earn money by renting their open space to tourists who have chartered sailboats or yachts, charging them by boat length. In the middle of Clifton harbour sits Happy Island, a man-made island featuring a bar. Ferry services operate between Clifton and Saint Vincent, Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday on the MS Barracouda and the MS Gemstar. Ferry services also operate bi-weekly between Ashton and Hillsborough, Carriacou (Grenada) on Mondays and Thursdays.