With no monarch, most modern republics use the title president for the head of state. Originally used to refer to the presiding officer of a committee or governing body in Great Britain the usage was also applied to political leaders, including the leaders of some of the Thirteen Colonies (originally Virginia in 1608); in full, the "President of the Council." The first republic to adopt the title was the United States of America. Keeping its usage as the head of a committee the President of the Continental Congress was the leader of the original congress. When the new constitution was written the title of President of the United States was conferred on the head of the new executive branch.
If the head of state of a republic is also the head of government, this is called a presidential system. There are a number of forms of presidential government. A full-presidential system has a president with substantial authority and a central political role.
In other states the legislature is dominant and the presidential role is almost purely ceremonial and apolitical, such as in Germany and India. These states are parliamentary republics and operate similarly to constitutional monarchies with parliamentary systems where the power of the monarch is also greatly circumscribed. In parliamentary systems the head of government, most often titled prime minister, exercises the most real political power. Semi-presidential systems have a president as an active head of state, but also have a head of government with important powers.
The rules for appointing the president and the leader of the government, in some republics permit the appointment of a president and a prime minister who have opposing political convictions: in France, when the members of the ruling cabinet and the president come from opposing political factions, this situation is called cohabitation.
In some countries, like Switzerland, Bosnia and Herzegovina and San Marino, the head of state is not a single person but a committee (council) of several persons holding that office. The Roman Republic had two consuls, elected for a one year-term by the comitia centuriata, consisting of all adult, freeborn males who could prove citizenship.
She released the first album of the Body Talk trilogy, Body Talk Pt. 1, on 14 June 2010 in the Nordic countries on EMI and on 15 June in the US on Interscope Records. The album was preceded by the single "Dancing on My Own" on 1 June 2010. It was Robyn's first number-one hit in Sweden and her fourth top-ten hit in the UK and the US, peaking at number eight on the UK Singles Chart and number three on Billboard's Hot Dance Club Songs chart. In July 2010 she sang a minimalist, electro cover version of Alicia Keys' "Try Sleeping with a Broken Heart" in a live performance on iheartradio. Robyn made the All Hearts Tour in JulyAugust 2010 with American singer Kelis to promote the Body Talk albums, and a four-date UK tour at the end of October.
On 6 September 2010, Body Talk Pt. 2 was released in the UK. It was preceded by the lead single, a dance version of "Hang with Me" from Body Talk Pt. 1, on 5 September. The album includes a duet with American rapper Snoop Dogg, "U Should Know Better". Robyn performed "Dancing on My Own" with deadmau5 at the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards on 12 September. In a BBC Newsbeat interview, Robyn explained her decision to release three albums in one year: "It was just something I felt like I needed to do. I just never thought about selling records or not, making this decision. I just did it for myself. It's a way of, for me, to stay inspired and to be able to do the things I like to do". She said that she would not do it again: "When you do 16 or 13 songs in one go, you kind of empty yourself, and it takes a while to fill back up and have new things to talk about, so I think it's good for everyone". Robyn announced the release of the single, "Indestructible", on 13 October 2010; an acoustic version appeared on Body Talk Pt. 2. The song was released on 17 November in Scandinavia and 22 November in the UK. Co-written by Klas hlund, it was described as a "pulsating full power version [that] takes every ounce of that emotion and wraps it up in another exceptional disco-pop record worthy of any dance-floor or passion-laden sing-a-long." Robyn planned to collaborate with Swedish producer Max Martin on the song, "Time Machine"; Martin produced Robyn's US hits "Do You Know (What It Takes)" and "Show Me Love", both of which peaked in the top 10 on the Billboard 100 in 1997. Combined, the Body Talk albums have sold 91,000 copies in the US
In 2010 Robyn guest-starred on "War at the Roses", an episode of Gossip Girl, in which she performed the acoustic version of "Hang With Me". "Dancing on My Own" was also featured at the end of the episode. In November, she said she would return to the studio in January 2011 with enough material to release a new album later that year. Robyn supported Coldplay on their 2012 tour as the opening act in Dallas, Houston, Tampa, Miami, Atlanta, Charlotte, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. In mid-2013, Robyn appeared with Paul Rudd and Sean Combs in "Go Kindergarten" on the Lonely Island's The Wack Album. On 21 and 22 June 2013, Robyn posted two videos of the Snoop Dogg collaboration: "U Should Know Better" and "Behind The Scenes", and a game, Mixory. That year she received the Stockholm KTH Royal Institute of Technology Great Prize for "artistic contributions and embrace of technology", a prize of 1.2 million Swedish kronor (117,197), which she planned to donate to a cause of her choice.