The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies (or Gipsies), which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe, especially Central, Eastern and Southern Europe (including Turkey, Spain and Southern France). The Romani originated in Northern India and arrived in Mid-West Asia, and Europe around 1,000 years ago. They have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people, from whom they have been said to have separated from or, at least, have a similar history to. Specifically, the ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the sixth and eleventh century.
Since the 19th century, some Romani have also migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States; and 800,000 in Brazil, most of whose ancestors emigrated in the nineteenth century from eastern Europe. Brazil also includes some Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal during the Inquisition in the colonial era. In migrations since the late nineteenth century, Romani have also moved to other countries in South America and to Canada.
In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora.
The Romani language is divided into several dialects, which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million. The total number of Romani people is at least twice as large (several times as large according to high estimates). Many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two; those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani.
French bohme, bohmien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia.
French gitan, English gypsy, Spanish gitano, Italian gitano, Turkish kipti, all from Greek Aigptios "Egyptian" (corrupted form: Gftos), and Hungarian faraonpe from Greek phara "pharaoh" referring to their allegedly Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy" and similarly derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur.
English tzigane (for Hungarian gypsies), Spanish zngaro or cngaro, French tzigane, Old High German zigeuner, German Zigeuner, Dutch zigeuner, Danish sigjner, Swedish "zigenare", Old Church Slavic atsyganin, Italian zingaro, Romanian igan, Hungarian cigny, Croatian cigan, Polish cygan, Czech cikn, Portuguese cigano, Turkish ingene, Slovak cign or cig, Venetian singano, Russian tsygane, Ukrainian tsyhany, Lithuanian igonai, Georgian ; from Greek athnganos (corrupted form: tsingnos), "untouchable". Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are usually considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples.
Arabic Nawar and Zott.