These are perennial herbs and subshrubs, sometimes with annual stems growing from a woody base or taproot. They are a few centimeters tall to well over a meter. The herbage is usually hairy and may be rough or soft in texture. The alternately arranged leaves have variously shaped blades that may be lobed or divided. The flower heads are solitary or borne in wide arrays. There are usually about 8 ray florets, but there may be 2 to 13 per head. They are yellowish on the upper surface but the undersides may be green, red, or maroon, or have darker veins. There are many disc florets in shades of yellow, red, or maroon. The fruit is a hairy black cypsela that is shed from the plant with the remnants of disc florets and phyllaries still attached to it.
Berlandiera betonicifolia (Hook.) Small (B. texana B. pumila) - Texas Louisiana Oklahoma
Berlandiera humilis Small - Florida
Berlandiera lyrata Benth. chocolate flower, chocolate daisy, lyreleaf greeneyes - Arizona New Mexico Texas Utah Oklahoma Kansas Colorado, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Jalisco, Nuevo Len, San Luis Potos, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes
Berlandiera macrophylla (A.Gray) M.E.Jones - Arizona New Mexico Texas
Berlandiera monocephala (B. L. Turner) Pinkava - Arizona New Mexico Chihuahua, Sonora
Berlandiera pumila (Michx.) Nutt. soft greeneyes - Texas LA Oklahoma Arkansas Alabama Georgia Florida South Carolina North Carolina
Berlandiera subacaulis (Nutt.) Nutt Florida greeneyes - Florida
Berlandiera texana DC. Texas greeneyes - New Mexico Texas Oklahoma Kansas Missouri
Aptly named after their disproportionately large, iridescent (as well as fluorescent) eyes, greeneyes are slender fish with slightly compressed bodies. The largest species, the Shortnose greeneye (Chlorophthalmus agassizi) reaches a length of 40 cm (16 in), but most other species are much smaller. Their heads are small with large jaws. Their coloration ranges from a yellowish to blackish brown, and some species have cryptic blotches.
Their fins are simple and spineless; aside from their eyes, some species also have iridescent patches covering their heads.
Greeneyes are generally deepwater fish, found from 50 to 1,000 m (160 to 3,280 ft). They seem to prefer the continental slopes and shelves, possibly forming schools. Greeneyes are known to primarily feed on benthic invertebrates, as well as pelagic crustaceans such as decapods and mysids.
Like many aulopiform fish, greeneyes are hermaphroditic; this is thought to be a great advantage in deep-sea habitats, where the chances of running into a compatible mate are uncertain. Young and larval greeneyes are pelagic rather than benthic, staying within the upper levels of the water column. Hake are known predators of greeneyes.