Flood geology is the religiously-inspired interpretation of the geological history of the Earth in terms of the global flood described in Genesis 69. Similar views played a part in the early development of the science of geology, even after the biblical chronology had been rejected by geologists in favour of an ancient Earth. Flood geology is a creation science, which is a part of young Earth creationism.
Modern geology and its sub-disciplines utilize the scientific method to analyze the geology of the earth. Flood geology contradicts the scientific consensus in geology and paleontology, as well as that in related disciplines such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, cosmology, biology, geophysics and stratigraphy. There is an absence of evidence for any of the effects proposed by flood geologists, and their claims concerning phenomena such as fossil layering are not taken seriously by scientists. More generally, the key tenets of flood geology are refuted by scientific analysis, and it is considered to be pseudoscience within the scientific community. Author JJ Dyken notes that established civilizations in Egypt and China were not impacted by claims of a global flood during the time of Noah's Ark.
As the center of the County of Toulouse and the regional parlement, Toulouse is often considered the "capital" of Languedoc. On maps (both ancient and modern) showing the provinces (i.e., gouvernements) of France in 1789, it is always marked as such. However, the intricate entanglement of administrations and jurisdictions permitted Montpellier to also claim that distinction. In the 18th century, the monarchy clearly favored Montpellier, a city much smaller than Toulouse, with less history, and with fewer autonomous local authorities such as Toulouse's parlement and capitoulate.
On the traditional territory of the province of Languedoc there live approximately 3,650,000 people (as of 1999 census), 52% of these in the Languedoc-Roussillon rgion, 35% in the Midi-Pyrnes rgion, 8% in the Rhne-Alpes rgion, and 5% in the Auvergne rgion.
The territory of the former province shows a stark contrast between some densely populated areas (coastal plains as well as metropolitan area of Toulouse in the interior) where density is between 150 inhabitants per km/390 inh. per sq. mile (coastal plains) and 300 inh. per km/780 inh. per sq. mile (plain of Toulouse), and the hilly and mountainous interior where density is extremely low, the Cvennes area in the south of Lozre having one of the lowest densities of Europe with only 7.4 inhabitants per km (19 inh. per sq. mile).
The five largest metropolitan areas on the territory of the former province of Languedoc are (as of 1999 census): Toulouse (964,797), Montpellier (459,916), Nmes (221,455), Bziers (124,967), and Als (89,390).
The population of the former province of Languedoc is currently the fastest-growing in France, and also among the fastest-growing in Europe, as an increasing flow of people from northern France and the north of Europe relocating to the sunbelt of Europe, in which Languedoc is located. Growth is particularly strong in the metropolitan areas of Toulouse and Montpellier, which are the two fastest growing metropolitan areas in Europe at the moment. However, the interior of Languedoc is still losing inhabitants, which increases the difference of density that was mentioned.
Population of the coast of Languedoc as well as the region of Toulouse is rather young, educated, and affluent, whereas in the interior the population tends to be much older, with significantly lower incomes, and with a lower percentage of high school and especially college graduates.