An extract on #fener
After the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Fener district became home to many of the Greeks in the city. The Patriarchate of Constantinople moved to the area as well and is still located there. As a result, "Phanar(i)" (the traditional spelling) is often used as shorthand for the Ecumenical Patriarchate, just as "Vatican" is used for the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. During the Ottoman period, the Greek inhabitants of Fener were called "Phanariotes" and were important assistants to the Sultan in various capacities and offices. Wealthy Phanariotes were appointed as governors over provinces in Turkish Europe and Greece, and as hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia between 1711 and 1821. The Phanar contains the patriarchal cathedral of St. George. Its main entrance is never opened since the hanging in 1821 of the patriarch there at the time of Greek independence.
The oldest surviving Greek school in Istanbul, Phanar Greek Orthodox College (Turkish: Ozel Fener Rum Lisesi), is found in Fener. The school was established in 1454.
An important Bulgarian church lies between the patriarchate and the shore of the Golden Horn. There are a number of other barely used Greek Orthodox churches.
In 1941, a great fire destroyed the Patriarchal Palace in Fener; a new palace was erected in 1989 by P. Aggelopoulos.
A fen is the local term for an individual area of marshland or former marshland and also designates the type of marsh typical of the area, which has neutral or alkaline water chemistry and relatively large quantities of dissolved minerals, but few other plant nutrients.
Fenland primarily lies around the coast of the Wash; it reaches into four ceremonial counties: Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and a small area of Suffolk, as well as the historic county of Huntingdonshire. In whole it occupies an area of nearly 1,500 sq mi (3,900 km2).
Most of the Fenland lies within a few metres of sea level. As with similar areas in the Netherlands, much of the Fenland originally consisted of fresh- or salt-water wetlands, which have been artificially drained and continue to be protected from floods by drainage banks and pumps. With the support of this drainage system, the Fenland has become a major arable agricultural region in Britain for grains and vegetables. The Fens are particularly fertile, containing around half of the grade 1 agricultural land in England.
The Fens have been referred to as the "Holy Land of the English" because of the former monasteries, now churches and cathedrals, of Crowland, Ely, Peterborough, Ramsey and Thorney. Other significant settlements in the Fens include Boston, Cambridge, Spalding, and Wisbech.