In Spain, a highly original variant of the style, Catalan Modernisme, appeared in Barcelona. Its most famous creator was Antoni Gaudi, who used Art Nouveau's floral and organic forms in a very novel way in Palau Gell (1886). His designs from about 1903, the Casa Batll (19041906) and Casa Mil (19061908), are most closely related to the stylistic elements of Art Nouveau. However, famous structures such as the Sagrada Famlia characteristically contrast the modernising Art Nouveau tendencies with revivalist Neo-Gothic. Besides the dominating presence of Gaud, Llus Domnech i Montaner also used Art Nouveau in Barcelona in buildings such as the Castell dels Tres Dragons (1888), Palau de la Msica Catalana and Casa Lle Morera (1905). Another major modernista was Josep Puig i Cadafalch, who designed the Casa Mart and its Quatre Gats caf, the Casimir Casaramona textile factory (now the CaixaFrum art museum), Casa Macaya, Casa Amatller, the Palau del Bar de Quadras (housing Casa sia for 10 years until 2013) and the Casa de les Punxes ("House of Spikes"). Also well-known is Josep Maria Jujol, with houses in Sant Joan Desp (19131926), several churches near Tarragona (1918 and 1926) and the sinuous Casa Planells (1924) in Barcelona. A few other major architects working outside of Barcelona were Llus Muncunill i Parellada, with a magnificent textile factory in Terrassa (Vapor Aymerich, Amat i Jover, now the Science and Technology Museum of Catalonia Museu de la Cincia i de la Tcnica de Catalunya)and a "farmhouse"/small manor house called Masia Freixa in the same city; and Csar Martinell i Brunet, with his spectacular "wine cathedrals", housing town cooperative wineries throughout southern and central Catalonia. A Valencian architect who worked in Catalonia before emigrating to the States was Rafael Guastavino. Attributed to him is the Asland Cement Factory in Castellar de n'Hug, among other buildings.
The Catalan furniture designer Gaspar Homar (18701953), influenced by Antoni Gaudi, often combining marquetry and mosaics with his furnishings. Examples of Art Nouveau (Arte nova), based largely on the French model, appeared in Portugal in Porto and Aveiro, A notable example is the 'Livraria Lello' bookstore in Porto, designed by Xavier Esteves (1906).
A very colorful Russian variation of Art Nouveau appeared in Moscow and Saint Petersburg in 1898 with the publication of a new art journal, " " (transliteration: Mir Iskusstva) ("The World of Art"), by Russian artists Alexandre Benois and Lon Bakst, and chief editor Sergei Diaghilev. The magazine organized exhibitions of leading Russian artists, including Mikhail Vrubel, Konstantin Somov, Isaac Levitan, and the book illustrator Ivan Bilibin. The World of Art style made less use of the vegetal and floral forms of French Art Nouveau; it drew heavily upon the bright colors and exotic designs of Russian folklore and fairy tales. The most influential contribution of the "World of Art" was the creation by Diaghilev of a new ballet company, the Ballets Russes, headed by Diaghilev, with costumes and sets designed by Bakst and Benois. The new ballet company premiered in Paris in 1909, and performed there every year through 1913. The exotic and colorful sets designed by Benois and Bakst had a major impact on French art and design. The costume and set designs were reproduced in the leading Paris magazines, L'Illustration, La Vie parisienne and Gazette du bon ton, and the Russian style became known in Paris as la Bakst. The company was stranded in Paris first by the outbreak of World War I, and then by the Russian Revolution in 1917, and ironically never performed in Russia.
Moscow and Saint Petersburg have several prominent Art Nouveau buildings constructed in the last years before the Revolution; notably the Hotel Metropol in Moscow, which features a ceramic mural on the faade, The Princess of Dreams, by scenic designer Mikhail Vrubel; and the Vitebsk Railway Station in Saint Petersburg (1904)