Anti-hunting campaigners long urged hunts to retain their tradition and equestrian sport by drag hunting, following an artificial scent. Drag hunting involves hunting a scent that has been laid (dragged) over a course with a defined beginning and end, before the day's hunting. The scent, usually a combination of aniseed oils and possibly animal meats or fox urine, is dragged along the terrain for distances usually of 10 or more miles. However, drag hunting is disliked by some advocates of quarry hunting because the trail is pre-determined, thereby eliminating the uncertainty present in the live quarry hunt and because they tend to be faster. Supporters contend that while drag hunts can be fast, this need not be the case if the scent line is broken up so that the hounds have to search an area to pick up the line.
Hunt supporters previously claimed that, in the event of a ban, hunts would not be able to convert and that many hounds would have to be put down.
Surface physics can be roughly defined as the study of physical interactions that occur at interfaces. It overlaps with surface chemistry. Some of the things investigated by surface physics include friction, surface states, surface diffusion, surface reconstruction, surface phonons and plasmons, epitaxy and surface enhanced Raman scattering, the emission and tunneling of electrons, spintronics, and the self-assembly of nanostructures on surfaces. In a confined liquid, defined by geometric constraints on a nanoscopic scale, most molecules sense some surface effects, which can result in physical properties grossly deviating from those of the bulk liquid.
At the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the port of Adria had lost most of its importance. It finally declined after the total change of the local hydrography in 589, and Adria became a fief of the archdiocese of Ravenna.
After a period as an independent commune, it was a possession of the Este of Ferrara and, in the 16th century, of the Republic of Venice. At that time Adria was a small village surrounded by malaria-plagued marshes. It recovered its importance when Polesine was reclaimed in the same century.
During the Napoleonic Wars it was first under France, then under Austria, to which it was assigned in 1815 after the Congress of Vienna, as part of Lombardy-Venetia.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Adria". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.