Rwanda has a National Assembly, with 80 members. 53 of them are directly elected and 27 are indirectly elected by representatives of special interest groups. The Senate has 24 members in which 16 are indirectly elected and eight appointed by the president.
The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows:
I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.
Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two (two ones) and XIII is thirteen (a ten and three ones). Symbols are placed from left to right in order of value, starting with the largest. Because each numeral has a fixed value rather than representing multiples of ten, one hundred and so on, according to position, there is no need for "place keeping" zeros, as in numbers like 207 or 1066; those numbers are written as CCVII (two hundreds, a five and two ones) and MLXVI (a thousand, a fifty, a ten, a five and a one).
In a few specific cases, to avoid confusing and hard to read numbers with four characters repeated in succession (such as IIII or XXXX), subtractive notation is used: as in this table:
I placed before V or X indicates one less, so four is IV (one less than five) and nine is IX (one less than ten)
X placed before L or C indicates ten less, so forty is XL (ten less than fifty) and ninety is XC (ten less than a hundred)
C placed before D or M indicates a hundred less, so four hundred is CD (a hundred less than five hundred) and nine hundred is CM (a hundred less than a thousand)
For example, MCMIV is one thousand nine hundred and four, 1904 (M is a thousand, CM is nine hundred and IV is four).
Some examples of the modern use of Roman numerals include:
1954 as MCMLIV, as in the trailer for the movie The Last Time I Saw Paris
1990 as MCMXC, used as the title of musical project Enigma's debut album MCMXC a.D., named after the year of its release.
2014 as MMXIV, the year of the games of the XXII (22nd) Olympic Winter Games (in Sochi)
In astronomy, the natural satellites or "moons" of the planets are traditionally designated by capital Roman numerals appended to the planets name. For example, Titan's designation is Saturn VI.
In chemistry, Roman numerals are often used to denote the groups of the periodic table. They are also used in the IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry, for the oxidation number of cations which can take on several different positive charges. They are also used for naming phases of polymorphic crystals, such as ice.
In computing, Roman numerals may be used in identifiers which are limited to alphabetic characters by syntactic constraints of the programming language. In LaTeX, for instance, \labelitemiii refers to the label of an item in the third level iii of a nested list environment.
In military unit designation, Roman numerals are often used to distinguish between units at different levels. This reduces possible confusion, especially when viewing operational or strategic level maps. In particular, army corps are often numbered using Roman numerals (for example the American XVIII Airborne Corps or the WW2-era German III Panzerkorps) with Hindu-Arabic numerals being used for divisions and armies.
In music, Roman numerals are used in several contexts:
Movements are often numbered using Roman numerals.
In music theory, the diatonic functions are identified using Roman numerals. (See: Roman numeral analysis)
Individual strings of stringed instruments, such as the violin, are often denoted by Roman numerals, with higher numbers denoting lower strings.
In pharmacy, Roman numerals are used in some contexts, including S to denote "one half" and N to mean "nothing". (See the sections below on "zero" and "fractions".)
In photography, Roman numerals (with zero) are used to denote varying levels of brightness when using the Zone System.
In seismology, Roman numerals are used to designate degrees of the Mercalli intensity scale of earthquakes.
In tarot, Roman numerals (with zero) are used to denote the cards of the Major Arcana.
In theology and biblical scholarship, the Septuagint is often referred to as LXX, as this translation of the Old Testament into Greek is named for the legendary number of its translators (septuaginta being Latin for "seventy").
In entomology, the broods of the thirteen and seventeen year periodical cicadas are identified by Roman numerals.
In advanced mathematics (including trigonometry, statistics, and calculus), when a graph includes negative numbers, its quadrants are named using I, II, III, and IV. These quadrant names signify positive numbers, negative numbers on the X axis, negative numbers on both axes, and negative numbers on the Y axis, respectively. The use of Roman numerals to designate quadrants avoids confusion, since Hindu-Arabic numerals are used for the actual data represented in the graph.