Posts filled under #catofworld

It's Bring your Cat to th

It's Bring your Cat to the Vet Day! So excited to see some lovely CAT patients today. We have kitties coming for dental procedures, grooming and general health check, to make the most of our Feline Friend Specials available this week!! Cats are notoriously tough animals and regular check ups are essential for maintaining good health and living a long and healthy life. There is still time to book just contact @redlandsvetclinic for more info. Happy Cat Week!!! @redvet_nurses @dogtrainervicki @karen_of_baysidepetcare @belindathefostercat @rasmustherussian @catcuddlecafe @stupiagram . . . #catofworld #catslife #catsofig #catslover #catsdaily #brisbanecats #catsofaustralia #catsofbrisbane #petsofbrisbane #brisbanepets #veterinarian #vetstudent #vetsnobiety #vetsquad #vets4pets #petdoctor #pethealth #felinelove #felinefriends #felinemeow #gingercats #rescuedismyfavoritebreed #rescuecats #rescuecatsrock #takeyourcattothevetday

#Repost @joannessmith (@g

#Repost @joannessmith (@get_repost) A fellow cat lover is asking for help. I cannot donate so I will share. There is a link in @forcatspaws profile #Repost @forcatspaws I'm still thinking about how to reach out more people to a story with cats. It's not easy to take time for a job, take care ( i'm saying about a time) about all cats alone, we are going to veterinary hospital almost every day. We are fighting with many different and difficult problems every day. I m so happy and thankful for each one positive thought from us followers and I would like say YOU big thank you I was checking our an youcaring site and we have just 5 shares, what is so less after so long time. I know it's up to people who wants share or not a story, but i can't believe that so many people is catlover/ catfan and doesn't care about those save cat lifes? They aren't foster FOREVER... because I'm only a human and not fairy with magic wand ( i wish sometimes) and i have mine limit too. We can make a better life for them but just with help and together. I'm starting be worried about next weeks more and more last days, because became new health problems, and with my plan we stay in one point for now and don't move to the "happyending destination" so to time I will still need to ask for help . If you can donate, please donate, doesn't matter if 1$ or 3$ or 5$ for each one will be apprecite, if you can share in facebook or repost here in instagram please do it for them. We will thankful for everything. #cat #cats #instapet #instacat #ilovecats #instameow #catlovers #lovecat #rescue #foster #adorablecats #innocentcat #addtohelp #dontbuyadopt #adoptdontshop #mykitty #mycatlove #story #forcatspaws #catofworld #catoftheday #share #repost #cutecats #ilovecat #togetherforsave #youcaring

An extract on #catofworld

In addition to the use of intercoolers, it is common practice to add extra fuel to the intake air (known as "running an engine rich") for the sole purpose of cooling. The amount of extra fuel varies, but typically reduces the air-fuel ratio to between 11 and 13, instead of the stoichiometric 14.7 (in petrol engines). The extra fuel is not burned (as there is insufficient oxygen to complete the chemical reaction), instead it undergoes a phase change from atomized (liquid) to gas. This phase change absorbs heat, and the added mass of the extra fuel reduces the average thermal energy of the charge and exhaust gas. Even when a catalytic converter is used, the practice of running an engine rich increases exhaust emissions.

A natural use of the turbocharger and its earliest known use for any internal combustion engine, starting with experimental installations in the 1920s is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. At 5,486 m (18,000 ft), the air is at half the pressure of sea level and the airframe experiences only half the aerodynamic drag. However, since the charge in the cylinders is pushed in by this air pressure, the engine normally produces only half-power at full throttle at this altitude. Pilots would like to take advantage of the low drag at high altitudes to go faster, but a naturally aspirated engine does not produce enough power at the same altitude to do so. The table below is used to demonstrate the wide range of conditions experienced. As seen in the table below, there is significant scope for forced induction to compensate for lower density environments. A turbocharger remedies this problem by compressing the air back to sea-level pressures (turbo-normalizing), or even much higher (turbo-charging), in order to produce rated power at high altitude. Since the size of the turbocharger is chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitude, the turbocharger is oversized for low altitude. The speed of the turbocharger is controlled by a wastegate. Early systems used a fixed wastegate, resulting in a turbocharger that functioned much like a supercharger. Later systems utilized an adjustable wastegate, controlled either manually by the pilot or by an automatic hydraulic or electric system. When the aircraft is at low altitude the wastegate is usually fully open, venting all the exhaust gases overboard. As the aircraft climbs and the air density drops, the wastegate must continuously close in small increments to maintain full power. The altitude at which the wastegate fully closes and the engine still produces full power is the critical altitude. When the aircraft climbs above the critical altitude, engine power output decreases as altitude increases, just as it would in a naturally aspirated engine. With older supercharged aircraft, the pilot must continually adjust the throttle to maintain the required manifold pressure during ascent or descent. The pilot must also take care to avoid over-boosting the engine and causing damage. In contrast, modern turbocharger systems use an automatic wastegate, which controls the manifold pressure within parameters preset by the manufacturer. For these systems, as long as the control system is working properly and the pilot's control commands are smooth and deliberate, a turbocharger cannot over-boost the engine and damage it. Yet the majority of World War II engines used superchargers, because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers, which were larger, involved extra piping, and required exotic high-temperature materials in the turbine and pre-turbine section of the exhaust system. The size of the piping alone is a serious issue; American fighters Vought F4U and Republic P-47 used the same engine, but the huge barrel-like fuselage of the latter was, in part, needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane. Turbocharged piston engines are also subject to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines. Pilots must make smooth, slow throttle adjustments to avoid overshooting their target manifold pressure. The fuel/air mixture must often be adjusted far on the rich side of stoichiometric combustion needs to avoid pre-ignition or detonation in the engine when running at high power settings. In systems using a manually operated wastegate, the pilot must be careful not to exceed the turbocharger's maximum rpm. The additional systems and piping increase an aircraft engine's size, weight, complexity and cost. A turbocharged aircraft engine costs more to maintain than a comparable normally aspirated engine. The great majority of World War II American heavy bombers used by the USAAF, particularly the Wright R-1820 Cyclone-9 powered B-17 Flying Fortress, and Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp powered Consolidated B-24 Liberator four-engine bombers both used similar models of General Electric-designed turbochargers in service, as did the twin Allison V-1710-engined Lockheed P-38 Lightning American heavy fighter during the war years. It must be noted that all of the above WWII aircraft engines had mechanically driven centrifugal superchargers as-designed from the start, and the turbosuperchargers (with Intercoolers) were added, effectively as twincharger systems, to achieve desired altitude performance. Today, most general aviation piston engine powered aircraft are naturally aspirated. Modern aviation piston engines designed to run at high altitudes typically include a turbocharger (either high pressure or turbonormalized) rather than a supercharger. The change in thinking is largely due to economics. Aviation gasoline was once plentiful and cheap, favoring the simple, but fuel-hungry supercharger. As the cost of fuel has increased, the supercharger has fallen out of favor. Turbocharged aircraft often occupy a performance range between that of normally aspirated piston-powered aircraft and turbine-powered aircraft. Despite the negative points, turbocharged aircraft fly higher for greater efficiency. High cruise flight also allows more time to evaluate issues before a forced landing must be made. As the turbocharged aircraft climbs, however, the pilot (or automated system) can close the wastegate, forcing more exhaust gas through the turbocharger turbine, thereby maintaining manifold pressure during the climb, at least until the critical pressure altitude is reached (when the wastegate is fully closed), after which manifold pressure falls. With such systems, modern high-performance piston engine aircraft can cruise at altitudes up to 25,000 feet (above which, RVSM certification would be required), where low air density results in lower drag and higher true airspeeds. This allows flying "above the weather". In manually controlled wastegate systems, the pilot must take care not to overboost the engine, which causes detonation, leading to engine damage.

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