An extract on #cat_rules
Turbocharged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm require a large volume of air to flow between the turbocharger and the inlet of the engine. When the throttle is closed, compressed air flows to the throttle valve without an exit (i.e., the air has nowhere to go).
In this situation, the surge can raise the pressure of the air to a level that can cause damage. This is because if the pressure rises high enough, a compressor stall occursstored pressurized air decompresses backward across the impeller and out the inlet. The reverse flow back across the turbocharger makes the turbine shaft reduce in speed more quickly than it would naturally, possibly damaging the turbocharger.
To prevent this from happening, a valve is fitted between the turbocharger and inlet, which vents off the excess air pressure. These are known as an anti-surge, diverter, bypass, turbo-relief valve, blow-off valve (BOV), or dump valve. It is a pressure relief valve, and is normally operated by the vacuum from the intake manifold.
The primary use of this valve is to maintain the spinning of the turbocharger at a high speed. The air is usually recycled back into the turbocharger inlet (diverter or bypass valves), but can also be vented to the atmosphere (blow off valve). Recycling back into the turbocharger inlet is required on an engine that uses a mass-airflow fuel injection system, because dumping the excessive air overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor causes an excessively rich fuel mixturebecause the mass-airflow sensor has already accounted for the extra air that is no longer being used. Valves that recycle the air also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbocharger after sudden engine deceleration, since load on the turbocharger when the valve is active is much lower than if the air charge vents to atmosphere.
Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) by a whole number of hours (UTC12 to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland Standard Time is UTC03:30, Nepal Standard Time is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time is UTC+05:30).
Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones. This also creates a permanent daylight saving time effect.