An extract on #carioca
Like other Brazilians, cariocas speak Portuguese. The carioca accent and sociolect (also simply called "carioca", see below) are the most widely recognized in Brazil, in part because Rede Globo, the second-largest television network in the world, is headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. Thus, a lot of Brazilian TV programs, from news and documentary to entertainment (such as the novelas), feature carioca-acting and -speaking talent.
The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is "fluminense", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river." Despite the fact "carioca" is a most ancient demonym of Rio de Janeiro's inhabitants (known since 1502), it was replaced by "fluminense" in 1783, when it was sanctioned as the official demonym of the Real Captainship of Rio de Janeiro (later Province of Rio de Janeiro). A few years after the City of So Sebastio do Rio de Janeiro had become the capital city of the Brazilian colonies. From 1783 and during all the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio (city and province). During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer to the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. Only when the City of Rio lost its status as Federal District and became a Brazilian State (Guanabara State) when the capital city was moved to Brasilia, "carioca" was made a co-official demonym with "guanabarino". In 1975, the Guanabara State was eliminated by President Geisel (under the military dictatorship) becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality. Besides the fact "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general (State and city) "cariocas" and most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" ("We are all Cariocas") try to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State.
Carioca people have invented a few sports; the most famous is footvolley.
Cariocas are credited with creating the bossa nova dance.
Famous cariocas in film include Brazilian "bombshell" Carmen Miranda, a Portuguese woman who grew up in Rio de Janeiro. An eponymous song from 1933, Carioca, has become a jazz standard.
Carnaval Carioca is the Portuguese name for the largest Brazilian Carnival, the Rio Carnival.
Samba Carioca is a localized style of Brazilian Samba.
There is an exercise drill used for dynamic stretching called Carioca. It consists of a repeating Samba dance step.