An extract on #bikinibabe
This table shows the layout of pitches on a standard tuning six-string guitar, which is tuned E, A, D, G, B, E, going from the lowest-pitch, thickest string to the highest - pitch, thinnest string. The table depicts a guitar fretboard as it would appear to an observer looking at a guitar that is on its side and upside-down, thus giving the table the same appearance that a guitarist would see when holding the instrument in playing position. Zero is the nut; 5 is the fifth (tuning) fret. This table only shows up to the twelfth fret. Most electric guitars have additional frets beyond the twelfth fret which have the same layout as the 1st- 12th fret (although the notes are an octave higher in pitch).
Electric guitars usually have one to four magnetic pickups. Identical pickups produce different tones depending on how near they are to the neck or bridge. Bridge pickups produce a bright or trebly timbre, and neck pickups are warmer or more bassy. The type of pickup also affects tone. Dual-coil pickups sound warm, thick, perhaps even muddy; single-coil pickups sound clear, bright, perhaps even biting. Guitars don't require a uniform pickup type: a common mixture is the "fat Strat" arrangement of one dual-coil at the bridge position and single coils in the middle and neck positions, known as HSS (humbucker/single/single). Some guitars have piezoelectric pickup in addition to electromagnetic pickups. Piezo pickups produce a more acoustic sound. The piezo runs through a built-in equalizer (EQ) to improve similitude and control tone. A blend knob controls the mix between electromagnetic and piezoelectric sounds.
Where there is more than one pickup, a pickup selector switch is usually present. These typically select or combine the outputs of two or more pickups, so that two-pickup guitars have three-way switches, and three-pickup guitars have five-way switches (a Gibson Les Paul three-pickup Black Beauty has a three-position toggle switch which configures bridge, bridge and middle [switch in middle position] and neck pickups). Further circuitry sometimes combines pickups in different ways. For instance, phase switching places one pickup out of phase with the other(s), leading to a "honky", "nasal", or "funky" sound. Individual pickups can also have their timbre altered by switches, typically coil tap switches that effectively short-circuit some of a dual-coil pickup's windings to produce a tone similar to a single-coil pickup (usually done with push-pull volume knobs).
The final stages of on-board sound-shaping circuitry are the volume control (potentiometer) and tone control (which "rolls off" the treble frequencies). Where there are individual volume controls for different pickups, and where pickup signals can be combined, they would affect the timbre of the final sound by adjusting the balance between pickups from a straight 50:50.
The strings fitted to the guitar also have an influence on tone. Rock musicians often prefer the lightest gauge of roundwound string, which is easier to bend, while jazz musicians go for heavier, flatwound strings, which have a rich, dark sound. Steel, nickel, and cobalt are common string materials, and each gives a slightly different tone color. Recent guitar designs may incorporate much more complex circuitry than described above; see Digital and synthesizer guitars, below.