Views on drug legality and policing vary greatly within the Conservative Party. Some Conservative politicians such as Alan Duncan take the libertarian approach that individual freedom and economic freedom of industry and trade should be respected. Other Conservative politicians, despite being economically liberal, are in favour of full prohibition of the ownership and trade of many drugs. Other Conservatives are in the middle ground, favouring stances such as looser regulation and decriminalisation of some drugs. Legalisation of cannabis for medical uses is favoured by some Conservative politicians, including Boris Johnson.
Traditionally the Conservative Party have been defenders of Britain's unwritten constitution and system of government. The party opposed many of Tony Blair's reforms, such as the removal of the hereditary peers, the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into British law, and the 2009 creation of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, a function formerly carried out by the House of Lords. Until 2001 most members of the party were against an elected House of Lords; however opinion was later split, shown in the vote on the House of Lords Reform Bill 2012, when 80 backbenchers voted for an 80% elected upper chamber, and 110 did not. There was also a split on whether to introduce a British Bill of Rights which would replace the Human Rights Act 1998; David Cameron expressed support, but Ken Clarke described it as "xenophobic and legal nonsense".
In the first decade of the 21st century, half the party's funding came from a cluster of just fifty "donor groups", and a third of it from only fifteen. In the year after the 2010 general election, half the Tories' funding came from the financial sector.
For 2013, the Conservative Party had an income of 25.4 million, of which 749,000 came from membership subscriptions.
In 2015, according to accounts filed with the Electoral Commission, the party had an income of about 41.8 million and expenditures of about 41 million.
Construction businesses, including the Wates Group and JCB, have also been significant donors to the party, contributing 430,000 and 8.1m respectively between 2007 and 2017.
The university is composed of the College, various graduate programs, and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is also well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies. The university currently enrolls approximately 5,700 students in the College and around 15,000 students overall.
University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including: the Chicago school of economics; the Chicago school of sociology; law and economics theory in legal analysis; the Chicago school of literary criticism; the Chicago school of religion; and the behavioralism school of political science. Chicago's physics department helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction (Chicago Pile-1) beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field. Chicago's research pursuits are aided through its operation of world-renowned institutions, including the nearby Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory. The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.
Founded at its current location by the American Baptist Education Society with a donation from oil magnate, John D. Rockefeller, the University of Chicago was re-incorporated in 1890; William Rainey Harper became the university's president in 1891, and the first classes at the Hyde Park campus were held in 1892. Both Harper and future president Robert Maynard Hutchins advocated for Chicago's curriculum to be based upon theoretical and perennial issues rather than on applied sciences and commercial utility. With Harper's vision in mind, the University of Chicago also became one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, an international organization of leading research universities, in 1900.
The University of Chicago has many prominent alumni. 91 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, students, faculty, or staff, the fourth most of any institution in the world. Similarly, 34 faculty members and 16 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur Genius Grant. In addition, Chicago's alumni include 51 Rhodes Scholars, 23 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 13 billionaire graduates, and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world.