Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century. Between the 1850s and 1880s many were built. Vienna (1865), Budapest (1866), Brno (1869). Steam trams appeared in the late 1860s. The electrification of tramways started from the late 1880s. The first electrified tramway in Austria-Hungary was built in Budapest in 1887.
Electric tramway lines in the Austrian Empire:
Austria: Gmunden (1894); Linz, Vienna (1897); Graz (1898); Ljubljana (1901); Innsbruck (1905); Unterlach, Ybbs an der Donau (1907); Salzburg (1909); Klagenfurt, Sankt Plten (1911); Piran (1912)
Bohemia: Prague (1891); Teplice (1895); Liberec (1897); st nad Labem, Plze, Olomouc (1899); Moravia, Brno, Jablonec nad Nisou (1900); Ostrava (1901); Marinsk Lzn (1902); Opava (1905); Budjovice, esk Budjovice, Jihlava (1909); esk Tn/Cieszyn (1911)
Galicia: Bielsko-Biaa (1895); Krakw (1901); Tarnw, Cieszyn (1911)
Electric tramway lines in the Kingdom of Hungary:
Hungary: Budapest (1887); Pressburg/Pozsony/Bratislava (1895); Szabadka/Subotica, Szombathely (1897), Miskolc (1897); Temesvr/Timioara (1899); Sopron (1900); Szatmrnmeti/Satu Mare (1900); Nyregyhza (1905); Nagyszeben/Sibiu (1905); Nagyvrad/Oradea (1906); Szeged (1908); Debrecen (1911); jvidk/Novi Sad (1911); Kassa/Koice (1913); Pcs (1913)
Croatia: Fiume (1899); Pula (1904); Opatija Lovran (1908); Zagreb (1910); Dubrovnik (1910).
Primary and secondary schools
One of the first measures of newly established Hungarian government was to provide supplementary schools of a non-denominational character. By a law passed in 1868 attendance at school is obligatory on all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. The communes or parishes are bound to maintain elementary schools, and they are entitled to levy an additional tax of 5% on the state taxes for their maintenance. But the number of state-aided elementary schools is continually increasing, as the spread of the Magyar language to the other races through the medium of the elementary schools is one of the principal concerns of the Hungarian government, and is vigorously pursued.' In 1902 there were in Hungary 18,729 elementary schools with 32,020 teachers, attended by 2,573,377 pupils, figures which compare favourably with those of 1877, when there were 15,486 schools with 20,717 teachers, attended by 1,559,636 pupils. In about 61% of these schools the language used was exclusively Magyar, in about 6 20% it was mixed, and in the remainder some non-Magyar language was used. In 1902, 80.56% of the children of school age actually attended school. Since 1891 infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, have been maintained either by the communes or by the state.
The public instruction of Hungary contains three other groups of educational institutions: middle or secondary schools, " high schools " and technical schools. The middle schools comprise classical schools (gymnasia) which are preparatory for the universities and other " high schools," and modern schools (Realschulen) preparatory for the technical schools. Their course of study is generally eight years, and they are maintained mostly by the state. The state-maintained gymnasia are mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches have been in existence for three, or sometimes four, centuries. The number of middle schools in 1902 was 243 with 4705 teachers, attended by 71,788 pupils; in 1880 their number was 185, attended by 40,747 pupils.
Universities in Kingdom of Hungary
In the year 1276, the university of Veszprm was destroyed by the troops of Pter Csk and it was never rebuilt. A university was established by Louis I of Hungary in Pcs in 1367. Sigismund established a university at buda in 1395. Another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in Pozsony (now Bratislava in Slovakia) by Mattias Corvinus. None of these medieval universities survived the Ottoman wars. Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda in 1777 and it is called Etvs Lornd University today. The world's first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbnya, Kingdom of Hungary (since 1920 Bansk tiavnica, now Slovakia) in 1735. Its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME) is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure. Its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II.
The high schools include the universities, of which Hungary possesses Five, all maintained by the state: at Budapest (founded in 1635), at Kolozsvr (founded in 1872), and at Zagreb (founded in 1874). Newer universities were established in Debrecen in 1912, and Pozsony university was reestablished after a half millennium in 1912. They have four faculties: of theology, law, philosophy and medicine (the university at Zagreb was without a faculty of medicine). There are besides ten high schools of law, called academies, which in 1900 were attended by 1569 pupils. The Polytechnicum in Budapest, founded in 1844, which contains four faculties and was attended in 1900 by 1772 pupils, is also considered a high school. There were in Hungary in 1900 forty-nine high theological colleges, twenty-nine Roman Catholic; five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish. Among special schools the principal mining schools are at Selmeczbnya, Nagyg and Felsbnya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvr; and there are a school of forestry at Selmeczbnya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Dva and Zagreb, and a naval school at Fiume. There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools - for design, painting, sculpture, music.