An extract on #ampiyonbeikta
The importance of the slide rule began to diminish as electronic computers, a new but rare resource in the 1950s, became more widely available to technical workers during the 1960s. (See History of computing hardware (1960spresent).)
Computers also changed the nature of calculation. With slide rules, a great emphasis was put on working the algebra to get expressions into the most computable form. Users would simply approximate or drop small terms to simplify a calculation. FORTRAN allowed complicated formulas to be implemented without such reformulation. Numerical integration was often easier than trying to find closed-form solutions for difficult problems. The young engineer asking for computer time to solve a problem that could have been done by a few swipes on the slide rule became a humorous clich.
Another step away from slide rules was the introduction of relatively inexpensive electronic desktop scientific calculators. The first included the Wang Laboratories LOCI-2, introduced in 1965, which used logarithms for multiplication and division; and the Hewlett-Packard HP 9100A, introduced in 1968. Both of these were programmable and provided exponential and logarithmic functions; the HP had trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and tangent) and hyperbolic trigonometric functions as well. The HP used the CORDIC (coordinate rotation digital computer) algorithm, which allows for calculation of trigonometric functions using only shift and add operations. This method facilitated the development of ever smaller scientific calculators.
As with mainframe computing, the availability of these machines did not significantly affect the ubiquitous use of the slide rule until cheap hand held scientific electronic calculators became available in the mid-1970s. at which point, it rapidly declined. The pocket-sized Hewlett-Packard HP-35 scientific calculator was the first handheld device of its type, but it cost US$395 in 1972. This was justifiable for some engineering professionals but too expensive for most students. By 1975, basic four-function electronic calculators could be purchased for less than $50, and, by 1976, the TI-30 scientific calculator was sold for less than $25.
Shah Jahan was widely considered to be the most competent of Emperor Jahangir's three sons, and after his death in late 1627, when a war of succession ensued, Shah Jahan emerged victorious. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. The period of his reign is widely considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.
In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill, which set off a war of succession among his four sons, in which his third son Aurangzeb, emerged victorious. Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, but Aurangzeb put his father under house arrest in Agra Fort from July 1658 until his death in January 1666. On 31 July 1658, Aurangzeb crowned himself emperor under the title "Alamgir."
The Mughal Empire reached the pinnacle of it's glory during Shah Jahan's reign and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors.