The frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) channel-access scheme is based on the frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) scheme, which provides different frequency bands to different data-streams. In the FDMA case, the data streams are allocated to different nodes or devices. An example of FDMA systems were the first-generation (1G) cell-phone systems, where each phone call was assigned to a specific uplink frequency channel, and another downlink frequency channel. Each message signal (each phone call) is modulated on a specific carrier frequency. A related technique is wavelength division multiple access (WDMA), based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), where different datastreams get different colors in fiber-optical communications. In the WDMA case, different network nodes in a bus or hub network get a different color. An advanced form of FDMA is the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) scheme, for example used in 4G cellular communication systems. In OFDMA, each node may use several sub-carriers, making it possible to provide different quality of service (different data rates) to different users. The assignment of sub-carriers to users may be changed dynamically, based on the current radio channel conditions and traffic load.
Space-division multiple access (SDMA) transmits different information in different physical areas. Examples include simple cellular radio systems and more advanced cellular systems which use directional antennas and power modulation to refine spatial transmission patterns.
Between its west terminus in Santa Monica, California, and the major East Los Angeles Interchange, I-10 is known as the Santa Monica Freeway. The Santa Monica Freeway is also called the Rosa Parks Freeway for the segment beginning at I-405 (the San Diego Freeway), and ending at I-110/SR 110 (the Harbor Freeway). The segment between the East Los Angeles Interchange and the city of San Bernardino, 63 miles (101 km) long, is called the San Bernardino Freeway. Other names exist for I-10. For example, a sign near the western terminus of the highway in Santa Monica proclaims this highway the Christopher Columbus Transcontinental Highway. I-10 is known to a considerably lesser degree as the Veterans Memorial Highway, and it is listed as a Blue Star Memorial Highway. In Palm Springs, I-10 is also named the Sonny Bono Memorial Freeway as a tribute to the late entertainer who served both as the mayor and as a U.S. Congressman. Another stretch a short distance east in Indio is proclaimed the Doctor June McCarroll Memorial Freeway.