An extract on #capturedifferent
On 19 May 1789, Louis XVI invited the Estates-General (les tats-gnraux) to air their grievances. Of the three estates in France, the deputies of the Third Estate (le Tiers tat), representing the common people, decided to break away from the two others - the Catholic clergy (clerg, Roman Catholicism being the state religion at that time) and the nobility (noblesse). The Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath (le serment du Jeu de paume, 20 June 1789), swearing not to separate until a constitution had been established. They were gradually joined by sympathising delegates of the other estates; Louis XVI started to recognise the validity of their concerns on 27 June. The assembly renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly (Assemble nationale constituante) on 9 July.
Jacques Necker, the finance minister, who was sympathetic to the Third Estate, was dismissed on 11 July. The people of Paris then stormed the Bastille, fearful that they and their representatives would be attacked by the royal army or by foreign regiments of mercenaries in the king's service, and seeking to gain ammunition and gunpowder for the general populace. The Bastille was a fortress-prison in Paris which had often held people jailed on the basis of lettres de cachet (literally "signet letters"), arbitrary royal indictments that could not be appealed and did not indicate the reason for the imprisonment. The Bastille held a large cache of ammunition and gunpowder, and was also known for holding political prisoners whose writings had displeased the royal government, and was thus a symbol of the absolutism of the monarchy. As it happened, at the time of the attack in July 1789 there were only seven inmates, none of great political significance.
The crowd was eventually reinforced by mutinous Gardes Franaises ("French Guards"), whose usual role was to protect public buildings. They proved a fair match for the fort's defenders, and Governor de Launay, the commander of the Bastille, capitulated and opened the gates to avoid a mutual massacre. However, possibly because of a misunderstanding, fighting resumed. According to the official documents, about 200 attackers and just one defender died in the initial fighting, but in the aftermath, de Launay and seven other defenders were killed, as was Jacques de Flesselles, the prvt des marchands ("provost of the merchants"), the elected head of the city's guilds, who under the feudal monarchy also had the competences of a present-day mayor.
Shortly after the storming of the Bastille, late in the evening of 4 August, after a very stormy session of the Assemble Constituante, feudalism was abolished. On 26 August, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Dclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen) was proclaimed (Homme with an uppercase h meaning human, while homme with a lowercase h means man).