Periodically the sewerage systems of Paris experience a failure known as sanitary sewer overflow, often in periods of high rainfall. Under these conditions untreated sewage has been discharged into the Seine. The resulting oxygen deficit is principally caused by allochthonous bacteria larger than one micrometre in size. The specific activity of these sewage bacteria is typically three to four times greater than that of the autochthonous (background) bacterial population. Heavy metal concentrations in the Seine are relatively high. The pH level of the Seine at Pont Neuf has been measured to be 8.46. Despite this, the water quality has improved significantly over what several historians at various times in the past called an "open sewer".
In 2009, it was announced that Atlantic salmon had returned to the Seine.
During the 19th and the 20th centuries in particular the Seine inspired many artists, including:
A song 'La Seine' by Flavien Monod and Guy Lafarge was written in 1948.
Josephine Baker recorded a song 'La Seine'
A song 'La seine' by Vanessa Paradis feat. Matthieu Chedid was originally written as a soundtrack for the movie 'A Monster in Paris'
During Dim's reign, the Commissariat General for Civic Action (Vietnamese: Cng Dn v) was established in March 1955 to "improve the intellectual level of the rural population and to raise the standard of living in rural areas in view to setting up a democratic basis and to promote a rural and material rearmament among the people". The Civic Action was considered a practical tool of Dims government to serve "the power vacuum" and make a rural influence for Dim's government in countryside due to the departure of Vit Minh cadres after the Geneva Accords (1954). Steward's study provides a clearer picture of Dim's domestic policies and a further understanding of his government's efforts in reaching and connecting with local communities in South Vietnam that shows "an indigenous initiative" of South Vietnam government in building an independent and viable nation.
Land Reform: In South Vietnam, especially in Mekong Delta, landholdings in rural areas were concentrated in small number of rich landlord families. Thus, it was urgent to implement land reform in South Vietnam. Dim had two attempts to control the excesses of the land tenancy system by promulgating the Ordinance 2 on 28 January 1955 to reduce land rent between 15-25 percent of the average harvest and the Ordinance 7 on 5 February 1955 to protect the rights of tenants on new and abandoned land and enhancing cultivation. In October 1956, with the urge from Wolf Ladejinsky, Dim's personal adviser on agrarian reform, Dim promulgated a more serious ordinance on the land reform, in which he proclaimed a "land to the tiller" program to put a relatively high 100 hectares limit on rice land and 15 hectares for ancestral worship. However, this measure had no real effect because many landlords evaded the redistribution by transferring the property to the name of family members. Besides, during the 194654 war against the French Union forces, the Vit Minh had gained control of parts of southern Vietnam, initiated land reform, confiscated landlords land and distributed it to the peasants. Additionally, the ceiling limit was more than 30 times that allowed in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, and the 370,000 acres (1,500 km2) of the Catholic Church's landownings in Vietnam were exempted. The political, social and economic influences of the land reform was minimal. From 1957 to 1963, only 50 percent of expropriated land was redistributed, and only 100,000 out of approximately one million tenant farmers in South Vietnam benefited from the reform.
Resettlement: According to Miller, Dim, who described tenant farmer as "real proletariat" and pursued the goal of "middle peasantization", was not a beholden of large landowners, instead of vigorously implementing Land Reform, Dim had his own vision in Vietnamese rural development based on resettlement, which focused on redistribution of people (rather than land), could reduce overpopulation and lead to many benefits in socio-economic transformation as well as military affairs and security, especially anti-communist infiltration. Moreover, Dim was ambitious to envision Resettlement as a tactic to practice the governments ideological goals. The US and Dims differences over nation building in countryside shaped the clashes in their alliance.
The Ci Sn resettlement project: In late 1955, with the help of US material support and expertise, Dim's government implemented the project Ci Sn in An Giang province, which aimed to resettle one hundred thousand northern refugees.
The Land Development program (Vietnamese: Khu dinh in): In early 1957, Dim started a new program called the Land Development to relocate poor inhabitants, demobilized soldiers, and minority ethnic groups in central and southern Vietnam into abandoned or unused land in Mekong Delta and Central Highland, and cultivating technological and scientific achievements to transform South Vietnam and ensure security and prevent communist infiltration. Dim believed that the program would help improve civilians lives, teach them the values of being self-reliant, hard working. At the end of 1963, the program had built more than two hundred settlements for a quarter of a million people. Nevertheless, the lacks of conditions in these areas along with the corruption and mercilessness of local officials failed the program.
Agroville program (Vietnamese: khu tr mt): During late 1959 and early 1960, motivated by the idea of population regroupment, Dim introduced the Agroville Program, which he intended to physically relocate residents who lived in remote and isolated regions in Mekong delta into new settlements in "dense and prosperous areas"proposing to offer them urban modernity and amenities without leaving their farms, and to keep them far away from the communists. Nonetheless, by late 1960, Dim had to admit that the program's objective failed since the residents were not happy with the program and the communist infiltrated the program, and he had to discard it.
According to Miller, The US and Dims disagreement intheir approaches to agrarian reform in countryside made their alliance "moved steadily from bad to worse".